Truth Has Come, Falsehood Has Vanished (26.09.2021) . A’ūdhu bi-Llāhi mina sh-shayṭāni r-rajīm. Bismi Llāhi r-Raḥmāni r-Raḥīm: وَقُلْ جَاءَ الْحَقُّ وَزَهَقَ الْبَاطِلُ ۚ إِنَّ الْبَاطِلَ كَانَ زَهُوقًا (Qur’ān 17:81). ‘And say, “Truth has come, and falsehood has vanished. Indeed is falsehood ever bound to vanish.”.’ Allah ‘Azza wa Jalla says in the Qur’an, “Truth has come and falsehood has vanished”. Falsehood has no ruling. Truth always comes out. Even though it looks like it’s over, eventually, it comes out as a winner and false things are swept away. People of falsehood assume that they finished the truth. They think that they didn’t leave a thing of it. But later, they realize that it is them who are finished.
The biggest example for this is the countries we travelled to. Bukhara and Samarkand used to be called Ma Wara’ an-Nahr, Transoxiana (What Lies Beyond the River). The Islamic countries there, those holy places – they were conquered by the Sahabah. And with their Barakah, the sun of civilization, the sun of Islam rose up there. Thousands and millions of scholars who followed our main belief, and the way of truth of our Holy Prophet ﷺ appeared there. But the trouble of the Mongols had come at some point and destroyed everything. They came as a flood and didn’t leave a single mosque, a house or a tomb. They flattened everything to the ground. And when they said that it was over and nothing would appear there, they were destroyed themselves, for the will of Allah ‘Azza wa Jalla and His ﷻ word are true. They vanished and truth came. After some time, they started serving Islam. The truth and light of Islam appeared there once again.
A Hundred years ago, the shaytans invaded it again. They said that there is no Allah ﷻ, that the religion is useless and forbade everything. But thank Allah ﷻ, now everywhere is much better than before masha’Allah. The truth has come out again. Therefore, it is wrong to lose hope by looking at the condition of the world. Believers must listen to and believe in the orders of Allah ‘Azza wa Jalla. They must believe. This is ‘iman. Truth has come and falsehood has vanished. It is swept and thrown away. Falsehood will never be raised or be good. It is always bad and dirty. It is impossible to rise. Sometimes people lose their hope because of the oppression in the world. They shouldn’t look at it. Certainly, it will be swept away.
Therefore, this is the biggest example. We used to hear about those places but didn’t imagine how they were. And when we went there, we came to realize how such places have fallen behind. It happens. When He ﷻ says “Be”, it happens. When He ﷻ says “Don’t be”, it doesn’t happen. No one can come against the will of Allah ﷻ. Make Shukr to Allah ﷻ for being on the side of truth. Shukr to Allah ﷻ for we are not on the side of falsehood. This is the biggest favor insha’Allah. May Allah ﷻ always show the victory of truth insha’Allah. Wa min Allah at-Tawfiq. Al-Fatiha.
Visit of the Maqams of the Great Sufi Saints of Bukhara: Sayyid Amir Kulal. During his lifetime he was nicknamed Kalon, which meant “the great one”. He was a potter by trade. He was famous long before he became the great teacher. Sayyid Amir Kulal was and had a spiritual authority over a hundred followers, including Baha-ud-Din Naqschband Buchari à Baha-ud-Din Naqschband Bukhari, the famous “teacher of Sufism”. Zikr with Sheikh Mehmed Effendi. Back to Bukhara and continue the sightseeing tour with some shopping in Bukhara. First you will visit the oldest citadel in Bukhara from the 4th century called Citadel Ark which served as a palace for several dynasties of the Bukhara Empire. Then visit the Poi-Kalon Ensemble, a unique example of Bukhara architectural art. It consists of three Structures built in the 12th – 16th centuries: Kalon Minaret, Kalon Mosque and Mir Arab Madrasa. Free time after the sightseeing tour. Overnight in Bukhara
Amir Kulāl (1278–1370), Persian: امیر کلال, Arabic: امیر کلال, birth name Shams ud-Dīn (Persian: شمس الدین, Arabic: شمس الدین), was a PersianSufiIslamic scholar, widely considered to be one of the most influential in history. He was a member of the mystical Khajaganorder. His father was the Sufi scholar Saif ud-Dīn Hamza (سیف الدین حمزہ), a sayyid descendant of Prophet Muhammad. Saif ud-Dīn Hamza was amir (chieftain) of the Persian Kulal-Tribe, his full title being Amir-i-Kulal. After his father’s death, Shams ud-Dīn became the amir and head of the tribe. By this time his reputation as a scholar and religious figure had spread through Chagatai Khanate and the title Amir-i-Kulal, had become his common name. Shams ud-Dīn was named after his grandfather, the spiritual mentor of the Barlas tribe and of Turghai, the father of Amir Timur. Because he made earthenware, he was popularly referred to as “Kulāl”, which means “potter” in Persian.
Kulal had a number of students who later became prominent figures in history, including Baha-ud-Dīn Naqshband and the conqueror Amir Timur. After rise of the Timurid Dynasty, a close relationship began between the houses of Amir Timur and Amir Kulal and continued through the Mughal line in India. Kulal is buried at Sokhar, near Bukhara, Uzbekistan.
Sayyid Amir Kulal is known as the Rose of the Characteristics and Attributes of the Prophet, the Furthest Lote Tree of Desire for the Ultimate Stations, the Owner of the Throne of Guidance, the Attractor of Heavenly Blessings, and the Teacher with his holy breath of the Secrets of the Divine. He is a mujaddid or Renewer of the sharica (Law), a Master of the tariqa (Way), a builder of haqiqa (Reality), and a guide for khaliqa (Creation). He was distinguished for mastery among the saints of his time, who applied the following saying to him: “The Saints of Mastery are the Masters of all Saints.”
He was born in the village of Sukhar, two miles from Bukhara. His family were sayyid, descendants of the Holy Prophet . His mother said, “When I was pregnant with him, whenever my hand went towards doubtful food, I would be unable to convey it to my mouth. This happened to me many times. I knew that I had someone special in my womb. I was careful and chose my food from the best and assuredly halal (lawful) food.”
In his childhood he was a wrestler. He used to practice all of its arts, until he became one of the most famous wrestlers in his time. All the wrestlers would gather around him to learn from him. One day, a man watching him wrestle had the following thought come to his heart: “How is it that a person who is the Descendant of the Prophet and who is deeply knowledgeable in sharica and tariqat, is practicing this sport?” He immediately fell into a deep sleep and dreamt that it was the Judgement Day. He felt that he was in great difficulty and that he was drowning. Then the shaikh Sayyid Amir al-Kulal appeared to him and rescued him from the water. He woke up and Sayyid Amir al-Kulal ق looked at him and said, “Did you witness my power in wrestling and my power in intercession?”
One time his shaikh-to-be, Muhammad Baba as-Samasi ق, was passing by his wrestling arena, accompanied by his followers. He stopped and stood there. An evil whisper came to the heart of one of his followers saying, “How is it that the shaikh is standing here in this wrestling arena?” The shaikh looked at his follower immediately and said, “I am standing here for the sake of one person. He is going to be a great Knower. Everyone will come to him for guidance and through him people will reach the highest states of Divine Love and the Divine Presence. My intention is to bring this person under my wing.” At that moment Amir Kulal ق gazed at him, was attracted and abandoned the sport of wrestling. He followed Shaikh Muhammad Baba As-Samasi to his house. Shaikh Samasi taught him the dhikr and the principles of this most distinguished tariqat and told him, “You are now my son.”
Shaikh Kulal followed Shaikh Samasi for 20 years, spending all his time in dhikr, seclusion, worship, and self-denial. No one saw him in these 20 years except in the company of his shaikh. He would come to see his shaikh in Samas every Monday and Thursday, although the distance was five miles and the journey difficult, until he reached a state of unveiling (mukashafa). At that time his fame began to spread everywhere until he left this world.
He had four children, as-Sayyid al-Amir Burhanuddin, as-Sayyid al-Amir Hamza, as-Sayyid al-Amir Shah, and as-Sayyid al-Amir ‘Umar. He also had four khalifs, but he passed his secrets to only one of them, the Master of Masters, the Knower of Knowers, the Greatest of Arch-Intercessors (al-Ghawth al-Aczam), the Sultan of the Saints, Shaikh Muhammad Baha’uddin Shah Naqshband ق.
Shaikh Sayyid Amir Kulal died in the same village in which he was born, Sukhar, the 8th of Jumada al-Awwal, 772 H.
Ensemble of Naqshbandi near Bukhara
The Memorial Complex of Khoja Bakhouddin Naqshbandi is one of the most important Muslim shrines. Every self-respecting Muslim knows and reveres this name. The great theologian of the XIV century, founder of the Sufi Order “Naqshbandia” was buried 12 km from Bukhara in his native village of Kasri Orifon. Some time ago there was the pagan temple of the site of current tomb of Naqshbandi.
Naqshbandi was the spiritual teacher of Amir Temur and made hajj to Mekka 32 times. He appealed people to be modest and rejected the luxury. His philosophy was based on the principle: “Dil ba joru, dast ba kor” (“The heart – with the God, hands at work”).
The main building of the complex is the khanqah. Before the frontal of the mosque there is the minaret and small madrassah. To the west from dahma, in separate courtyard there is the large necropolis, where Naqshbandi is buried. Graves of his mother and his teacher – Said Mir Kulol, are situated not far from his grave.
The Mausoleum of Saint Bakhouddin Naqshbandi is considered as the Central Asian Mekka. Believers from different muslim countries come here to ask for the fulfilment of wishes and healing.
The complex also includes the museum, which keeps the true information about Sufi and Sufism: Sufi wearing, books and other expositions.
Muhammad Baha’uddin Shah Naqshband
He is an Ocean of Knowledge that has no shore. Its waves were woven with the pearls of Heavenly Knowledge. He cleansed humanity with his Ocean of Innocence and Piety. He quenched the thirst of souls with the water of his spiritual Support. The whole world, including its oceans and continents, were within his grasp. He is a star decorated with the crown of Guidance. He sanctified all human souls without exception with his holy breath. He adorned even the remotest corner with the secrets of Muhammadun Rasul-Allah . His light penetrated every dark lair of ignorance. His outstanding proofs cast away the least whisper of doubt from the hearts of humanity. His powerful miracles brought life to hearts after their deaths and provided souls with their provision for the spiritual realm. He was nursed in the Station of the Arch-Intercessor when he was a child in the cradle. He sipped the nectar of Unseen Knowledge from the cup of Reality. If Muhammad were not the last of the Prophets , he would have been a prophet. All Praise to Allah for sending such a Reviver of Religion (mujaddid). He uplifted the hearts of humanity causing them to soar in the sky of spirituality. He made kings to stand at his door. He spread his guidance from North to South and from East to West. He left no one without heavenly support–even the wild animals in jungles. He is the greatest Ghawth, Arch-intercessor, the Sultan of Saints, the Necklace of all the spiritual Pearls that were bestowed on this world by the Divine Presence. By the light of his guidance Allah caused the good to be the best and transformed evil into goodness.
He is the Master of this Tariqat and the Shaikh of the Golden Chain and the Best of those who carried this lineage from the Khwajagan.
He was born in the month of Muharram, in 717 H./1317 CE, in the village of Qasr al-’Arifan near Bukhara. Allah granted him miraculous powers in his childhood. He had been taught about the secret of this tariqat by his first teacher, Sayyid Muhammad Baba As-Samasi (q). Then he was given the secret and the mastery of the Order by his shaikh, Sayyid Amir al-Kulal (q). He was also Uwaysi in his connection to the Prophet, as he was raised in the spiritual presence of Abdul Khaliq al-Ghujdawani (q), who preceded him by 200 years.
The Beginning of His Guidance and the Guidance of His Beginning
Shah Naqshband (q) was eighteen years of age when he was sent by his grandfather to the village of Samas to serve the Shaikh of the Tariqat, Muhamad Baba as-Samasi (q), who had asked for him. From the beginning of his companionship with the Shaikh, he perceived within himself countless blessings and the urge for great sincerity and devotion. Of his youth he relates: Read more here
On Loud and Silent Dhikr
It is mentioned in the book al-Bahjat as-Saniyya that from the time of Mahmoud al-Faghnawi to the time of Sayyid Amir al-Kulal they kept the way of loud dhikr when in association and silent dhikr when alone. However, when Shah Bahaudin Naqshband received his secret, he kept only the silent dhikr. Even in the associations of Sayid Amir Kulal, when they began to do the loud dhkir, he used to leave and go to his room to do silent dhikr. This was making the murids somewhat upset: although his shaikh was doing the loud dhikr, he was doing the silent dhikr. Yet he stood in the service of his shaikh all his life.
One day, as Shah Baha’uddan and all the followers of Sayyid Amir Kulal were taking a rest from building a new mosque, Sayyid Amir Kulal said, “Whoever was keeping bad thoughts about my son Baha’uddan was wrong. Allah has given him a secret that no one was given before. Even I was unable to know it.” And he told him, “O my son, I have fulfilled the will and advice of Shaikh Muhammad Baba as-Samasi when he ordered me to raise you and nurse you in my way of training until you surpassed me. This I have done, and you have capacity to continue higher and higher. So, my dear son, I am now giving you complete permission to go wherever you like and to obtain knowledge from whomever you find.”
Diner sultan ul awliya shaykh Muhammad Adil
Ark Fortress, Bukhara
Ark-Citadel is a residence of Bukhara khans. According to the last excavations, it was determined the citadel was on this place from 4 century BC. For many years of building and destruction, 20 meters height artificial hill was formed; its upper layers were built over in the time of last bokharan emirs. The wooden part of Ark building was burnt down during the fire of 1920. The general planning is being reestablished by historical documents. Ark included the whole city, consisting of closely accreted houses; courts and yards with state institutions, emir, his wives, and relatives and officials lodgings. Inside the trapeziform outlines of citadel walls the planning was right-angled with traditional cruciform crossing of main streets.
Ark included: emir lodging, throe-room, police department, stables, stores of clothes, carpets, utensils, treasures, armoury, jail, jeweler’s and other workshops, mint place, mosques, mazars and other buildings. The first, you can see it is massive fortress gates of Ark – portal with two-storey towers by sides from arch aperture and latticed architecture gallery on top. Behind it there is a musical pavilion, built in 17 century, two-coloured audience chamber, surrounded by gallery. Here during a day there was performed a series of makoms – it is a musical work; through it people could know the time (it is tradition left from zoroastrizm time). From ayvan, tsarevitches was looking at solemnities and executions at Registan Square before Ark. To citadel inside leads from Ark gates the gloomy, arched and raising up passage-dalon. By its side there can be seen 12 niches, leading to damp dungeons, where prisoners were lauguishing. There were awful casemates and in dungeons under bridge of planks and Ark gates towers.
To the south of entrance from the dalon, there is the most interesting of reserved monuments – throne-room of Bukharan emir, drawing room for ceremonies and festivals. It was vast, brick-paved yard surrounded by ayvans on well-proportioned wooden pillars from 3 sides. On the long axis yard in deep ayvan there is emir throne. This marble “takht” dated to 1669, under painted, wooden canopy on fretted marble pillars, was made by Nuratian masters.
Poi-Kalyan Ensemble, Bukhara
It is the main ensemble in Bukhara center, situated on the way to trade crossing of “four bazars” and Poi-Kalyan means “the pedestal of the Great” (it means “the pedestal of Kalyan minaret”). Ensemble consists of 4 monuments: Kalyan mosque and Miri-Arab Madrasah – faced to each other with main fronts; between them is Kalyan minaret; to the south of Miri-Arab there is small Amir-Allimkhan Madrasah.
Kalyan Minaret – it is a great vertical pillar, rising above the city. To proclaim the appeal to the pray – azal, it was enough to rise mosque roof, as it was in first centuries after Islam establishment. The word “minaret” descends from “minor” – it is a place, where something is on fire, the fire was set in leading light like this, between them in ancient world there were vast many-storey towers, like Phaross light-house of 143 meters height, dating to 283 BC.
Minarets played an exceptional role in architectual ensembles creating the city peculiarity.
In the beginning of 12 century – Arslan-khan ordered to rebuilt the minaret of old mosque. When the construction works had been finished, minaret fell and 2/3 of it was damaged. For the second time Arslan-khan ordered to built minaret. By inscription in turquoise majolica, under light cornice of Kalyan minaret, it was determined that it was finished in 1127. You can read “the name of Arslan-khan” on the half weight of stem. And it was found the name of master – Bano, whose burial place, local inhabitants pointed out between the next blockhouses. Kalyan minaret represents characteristic Maveranahr style of roundtrunk brick tower, decorated by the arch light. Its lower diameter – 9 meters, up diameter – 6 meters, total height is 45,6 meters. There is a brink-winding staircase inside trunk. Sixteen-arch light rotunda hangs over minaret trunk leaning on running out laying rows, decorated as stalactite cornice.
Kalyan Madrasah is dated to architecture masterpiece; it is a monument of 5 century, raised from the ruins during the years of Soviet power. In the beginning of 16 century, the mosque was partly reconstructed. The shapes of amazing arches and portal decor have already carried the features of new style, developed in Bukharan oasis in 16-17 centuries. The inscription under arch portal dates time of reconstruction. This is a poem from Koran, at the end of which we can see the date 1514-1515. In 1541 at the entrance of main portal was fixed a marble board with cut text of Abdullaziz I, this order runs that Bukharan inhabitants were free of some taxes payment.
Miri-Arab Madrasah, Bukhara
There are two big blue domes of the Miri-Arab madrasah towering above the surrounding buildings in the center of Bukhara. Along with the Kalyan mosque and minaret, this religious educational establishment forms the whole ensemble Poi-Kalyan that is the spiritual center of the city.
Construction of the Miri-Arab madrasah dates back to the 16th century and is related to the sheikh Abdallah Yamani (from Yemen), the spiritual pir (guide) of sheybanids. The exact date of the beginning of the construction is still unknown. According to one version, scientists believe that the building was erected in the period of 1530-1535/1536. The other version states, that the madrasah was built to celebrate the victory of the sheybanid army over the troops of the Sefevid shah Ismail I in the battle of Gijduvan in 1512. It is also supposed that the final construction works were carried out on the funds of Ubaydulla-khan; the money received from the sale of 3000 captive Iranians to slavery.
This madrasah is considered one of the most interesting monuments of Bukhara, and is still an acting institution, where future imams and religious mentors receive their education.
Traditional national architecture is peculiar to this building – a square yard, surrounded with two floors of cells, two big domed halls in the left and right corners. There are two-store loggias adjoining the main façade in the center highlighted with a portal. The inner yard is adorned with composed carved mosaic. In the center of the madrassah, there is a shrine of Ubaydulla – emir of Bukhara, who had ruled the city in the period of 1533-1540. In the head of the building, you will see a burial place of the spiritual guide of the khan – Miri Arab (sheikh Abdallah Yamani), in whose honor the building got its name. The senior teacher of Ubaydulla – MukhammadKasimwas also buried there.
The décor of the Miri-Arab madrassah has dominance of different stone mosaics of exquisite work with geometric, vegetative and calligraphic writings and patterns. The portal, tympanums of loggias of the main façade, tympanums of hujra arches in inner facades and dome drums are adorned with artistic works. External domes are covered with calottes of blue tiles. In the inner decoration of the building, it is important to pay attention to the colorfully arranged mausoleum. Its panels and grates are decorated with carved mosaic from colorful stones and walls and shade are adorned with ganch (ganch – material similar to gypsum building plaster).
Miri-Arab madrasah was the only spiritual educational establishment in the USSR that had begun to function after the WWII. All leading imams of those times had graduated from this religious center.
Décor and architecture of the building are done in exquisite oriental taste. The monuments had gone through many destructions, but restorers managed to reconstruct the large part of the building, returning its initial look. As in the ancient times, grand façade makes any visitor admire its beautiful layout.
The Kalyan Minaret, Bukhara
From the beginnings of Islam, there have been three types of mosques: Djuma mosques, which are intended for the large crowds that come to Friday services, Namazga country mosques (musalla idgoh), which are used by the male population of both the city and the surrounding countryside to celebrate the two Muslim holidays Qurban and Ramazan, and Quzar mosques, which are designed to be used as daily mosques in residential neighbourhoods.
We know very little about the thirteenth century Djuma Mosque in Bukhara, for it has been rebuilt completely since the time of its original construction. In any case, it had a vast courtyard surrounded by galleries. However, the minaret which was built in 1127 A.D. and called the Kalyan (Great) Minaret, has survived. It still dominates the skyline of Bukhara, astonishing all who see it with its magnificent and flawless shape. The minaret was designated to summon Muslims to prayer five times a day. Normally, each mosque had its own minaret, but the main minaret was situated near the Djuma Mosque. It was from the gallery, at the top of the minaret, that the muedzin summoned the believers to prayer at the top of his voice.
The Kalyan Minaret was built twice. The fact is it collapsed just before it was completed the first time, probably because of the builders did not take into account the soft ground underneath, due to the many cultural layers beneath the city. A new, more durable foundation was laid for the minaret and, by 1127, construction of this second minaret was completed. According to someone writing at the time, «there was nothing like this minaret, for it was built very beautifully». Indeed, the forty-eight m tall Kalyan Minaret is a flawless example of both civil engineering and superior architectural creation. The baked bricks it is made from form a monolithic circular tower that narrows from its thick base to its top.
The body of the minaret is topped by a rotunda with 16 arched fenestrations, from which the muedzins gave the call to prayer. In times of siege or war, warriors used the minaret as a watchtower. Earlier, the minaret apparently had another round section above the rotunda, but now only the cone-shaped top is left. The baked bricks, from which the minaret is made, are the main feature of its architectural design. The body of minaret is belted with narrow ornamental strings made of bricks. They are arranged in a chessboard order, either straight or diagonally. A frieze with inscriptions goes around the minaret upon a muqarnas (stalactite) cornice. The frieze is covered with blue glaze, which was used widely in the architectural decor of Bukhara at that time.
Who Trusts in Allah ﷻ Is Saved [25/09/2021]
“Thank Allah ﷻ for this journey. We travelled and returned with their Himmah (support). Insha’Allah we came back with Barakah. People there have Barakah too, because they were both giving and serving. May Allah ﷻ be pleased with all of them. The last time we went to these holy places with my father Mawlana Shaykh Nazim was twenty years ago. There are more followers now. There were many Murids back then as well. Everyone who saw Mawlana Shaykh Nazim knew and recognized him. Everyone showed respect. They had so much love and faith.
The Himmah of Mawlana and the Himmah of the Mashayikh there is always present. You can really see their Barakah on them. They will reach happiness here and hereafter with their patience, Adab and beautiful manners. There are thousands, millions of holy people there. All of them were people who walked on the way of Allah ﷻ, people who followed the true way of our Holy Prophet ﷺ and people who served Islam. Their Himmah is always present insha’Allah.
It was a great honor for us to have been there. It has been a while. Despite this distressed time, thank Allah ﷻ, it was very nice and you don’t feel this worldwide trouble there. Here, they say to do this and that. And there, they trust in Allah ﷻ, so Allah ﷻ is helping them. This is important. There is big difference between people who are cheated by Dunya and forgot Allah ﷻ, and people who trust in Allah ﷻ. It is difficult to explain this to people. Whoever understands, understands. Whoever doesn’t understand, what can we do? They will live in distress and in difficulty. And their distress will increase day by day. Those who trust in Allah ﷻ will be saved by Allah ﷻ. Allah ﷻ will help them. This is so with the permission of Allah
ﷻ. May Allah ﷻ let us all trust in Him. Those who trust in Him ﷻ will be saved.”
Today you will continue to visit the maqams of the 7 Great Sufi Saints of Bukhara: Khaji Ali Ramitani, the most famous spiritual master of the Khwajagan Sufi school. The people called the Sufi “Azizhon” – the venerable sheikh. Then visit the memorial complex of Chor-Bakr, the Is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site. This complex was built over the tomb of Abu-Bakr Said, who was one of the four Abu-Bakrs (Chor-Bakr) – descendants of Muhammad. return to Bukhara and sightseeing tour in Bukhara. There you will see a Samanid mausoleum that is a is a real masterpiece of architecture from the 9th to 10th centuries. You also have the option to walk along the department stores and one of the most famous madrasas of Bukhara called Nodir To visit Devonbegi. This madrasah is also part of the Labi Hovuz Ensemble, which is a famous central attraction of Bukhara is. Overnight in Bukhara
The memorial complex of Chor-Bakr was built over the burial place of Abu-Bakr-Said, who died in the year 360 of the Muslim Calendar (970-971 AD), and who was one of the four of Abu-Bakrs (Chor-Bakr) – descendants of Muhammad. The complex includes the necropolis of family tombs, and courtyards enclosed with walls. It is located in modern-day Kalaya, Uzbekistan.
This site was built during the era of Uzbek leader Muhammad Shaybani. at the purported burial site of Abu Bakr Said and his son Abu Bakr Ahmad. The site became a popular location for ceremonies and prayers in the 16th century. However, it started to lose importance in the 19th century and eventually became forbidden as a religious site during the Soviet era. After the end of the Soviet era in Uzbekistan, the site increased in importance for Muslim pilgrimage and is considered necessary for Muslim Uzbeks, along with Shahi Zinda, before their pilgrimage to Mecca.
Many constructions in the complex have richly decorated polychromatic tiles.
In many courtyards above burial places, marble gravestones with epigraphic inscriptions, and vegetative and geometrical ornaments, are installed.
The structure of the complex includes 25 constructions – khonaqo, mosque, ayvan with khudjras, darvazahana, minaret, and 20 small objects – courtyards – burial places with the dome coverings, and separately standing portals. The territory occupies both a memorial and an ancient cemetery equal to 3 hectares.
Chor-Bakr Necropolis near Bukhara
Five kilometers away to the west from Bukhara, where the fields are separated by rows of mulberry trees, there is one of the most unusual landmarks – the Chor-Bakr Necropolis, also called the city of the dead. The first graves there appeared thousand years ago, when there was a small settlement of dervishes. But the magnificent architectural ensemble, now visited by thousands of pilgrims was not built until the XVI century.
In the X century when Bukhara was under the Samanid dynasty, there lived an old family of Djuybar Seyyids (Prophet Muhammad’s descendants), who played an important role in the city’s life. For centuries the Djuybars were buried in this country cemetery.
In the year 1560 the Shaybanid Dynasty ruler Abdullakhan II decided to memorialize the noble family, and ordered to build a mosque, madrasah and khanaka there. It was a gift to his teacher, Djuybar Sheikh Muhammad Islam Khoja, who died in 1563. The construction of the complex was completed the same year.
Died in 1593, Muhammad Islam’s son Khodja Bakr Sadi was buried next to his father. In after years other family members such as Abu Bakr Fazl and Tojidin Khasan were also buried there. These four men, who bore a title of “Bakr”, slumber in one khazira (tomb). “Bakr” is translated as “brother” and Chor-Bakr, as “Four Brothers”.
Khazira is a kind of burial structure, consisting of a courtyard surrounded by solid walls, with a single entrance in the form of beautifully decorated gate. It is this structure of the tomb which distinguishes Chor-Bakr from other religious burials in Uzbekistan, for instance the Shakhi-Zinda Necropolis. The whole complex is built the same way.
The khazira of Djuybar Seyyids, located in the north-western part of the complex, can be reached by a long corridor where each step is reflected from the brick walls with a ringing echo. Other khaziras located in the eastern part of the complex run long in a succession, stretching from north to south, and opposite to them, behind a small pond, there are buildings of a mosque and khanaka. It is notable that over time the burial rituals became less stringent and Chor-Bakr became just the Djuybar family tomb – all the dynasty members, including women were buried there.
A small minaret, which resembles the famous Kalyan in Bukhara, was attached to the complex early in the XX century, thus the territory of Chor-Bakr hosts now 30 architectural structures. In addition, to the north of the necropolis there is a large garden, set out as far back as the XVI century. It is planted with poplars, sycamores, willows and many fruit trees.
Chor-Bakr is really an unusual and mysterious place. Visiting Chor-Bakr you could not help but feel the breath of the world of the dead, where in the quiet of the alleys the thoughts of the frailty of life and the transience of human life unwittingly come into your head.
Of all the medieval buildings in Bukhara, the Samanids Mausoleum is of special interest. This world-famous architectural masterpiece was built at the close of the ninth century. The mausoleum was erected as a family crypt immediately after the death of Ismail Samani’s father. Later, Ismail himself and his grandson Hasr were also buried in it. It is interesting to note that erecting crypts was against Islamic law at that time, for Islam forbade erecting any post-mortem monuments upon the tombs of Muslim believers. However, the prohibition was broken in the middle of the ninth century by one of the caliphs himself, for whom a special as-Suli-biya Mausoleum was built. Ismail merely followed his example.
The Samanids Mausoleum reveals the genius of a plain design. This is seen in its composition and the balanced design of its facades and interiors. It is composed of a semi-spherical dome resting on a cube. All of the facades are identical and marked with three-quarter domed columns on the corners. There is an upper armature and a central entrance with a visible horizontal dividing line.
The core is characterized by regular kiln-dried bricks, forming horizontal, vertical, and diagonal patterns on the walls. There are also separate details in the shape of disks or rosettes. Analysis shows that all elements in the Mausoleum are based on squares and diagonals: the elements form geometrically digressive lines. The same unification is seen in the architectural forms and kiln-dried brickwork in the interiors. The architectural design of the Samoniy mausoleum is entirely unique. It owes much to pre-lslamic Soghdian architecture, which used four-arch domed compositions and diminished forms on the top of buildings, including disks and rosettes on decoration columns (as can also be seen in the section between the dome and the drum of the interior). Although this building is connected with pre-Islamic architecture, it also anticipates the emergence of a new architectural style with comparatively small dimensions; the Samanids Mausoleum is full of magnificence and feeling of moving from this world to the world that lasts forever.
Lyabi-Khauz Ensemble, Bukhara
Architectual ensemble Lyabi-Khauz is formed with three large monumental buildings: Kukeldash Madrasah in the north, khanaka and Nodir Divan-begi in the west and in the east. From the south the square was closed with Trade Street. The center of old Bukhara large ensemble became a reservoir.
The name «Lyabi-Khauz» means «at reservoir». According to the old legend, for a long time knan gardener Nadir Divan-begi could not buy a lot for planned building, where a house of alone woman was. Then all-powerful vizier ordered to built a channel under women’s house, and the water began to washaway walls, unhappy women had to sell this lot. The khan hauz secretly was called «khauz of violence», what in arabian inscription gives numerical meaning of building date – 1620.
The khauz rectangular (36 – 46 meters height), stretched from the east to the west, is buried in shadow of venerable chinaras. Its shores are formed with stair launch to the water, made from massive blocks of yellow limestone. In old times there was «tea bazar», there sold sweets, dainties, bread and made food.
Kukeldash Madrasah (1568 – 1569) is the largest in Bukhara (80x 60 meters). It is built on traditional diagram of eastern institution – boarding school. However for the first time in madrasah built in rabid, light, ventilated hujrs leaded by loggias on the free yard to the streets of city. They open on the second floor on side-facades. Living apatment is equipped with modern amenities, as Ulugbek Madrasah in Samarkand, butr there is three-part apartmenton the first floor, consisted of ayvan, housing and household apartments. In darskhana 4 crossing archs, stretched from corner to corner diagonally with netted décor, carry the light.
On the west side of Laybi-khauz is one more architectural monument. This is Nadir Divan-begi Khanaka (1619 – 1620). It is great multicells building with central cupola hall, with undeep niches on sides. In the building corners are living hydjras.
On the eastern side of khauz you can see a facade of curious architectual building – Nadir Divan-begi Madrasah. At first this building was built as caravan-saray in Madrasah, joined to main facade loggias, portal and corner towers. At this time second floor was built. On longitudinal axis, across from entrance peshtak is, traditional in caravan-saray, passage to the back yard, destined for pack cattle.
Mausoleum of Imam Abu Khafs Kabir, Bukhara
Akhmad ibn Khafs al-Kabir al-Bukhari was born in the Bukhara village of Fagsodara in 767. He left for Bukhara for his trip to Baghdad already in his young age in order to study theology and Shariah law from the Imam Mukhammad ash-Shaybani. Ash-Shaybani was a student of a legendary Imam Azam Abu Khanifa, the Hanafi school (one of the four Sunni Law Schools) founder.
With the time Abu Khafs Kabir became one of the main theologians of the Islamic East. The Holy Imam is the author of a series of books on Islamic law including “Al-Akhvo val ihtilof” (“Flippant agreements and disagreements”), “Ar-Raddu alal-lafziya” (“Repulse to those looking above”) and many others. Returning to Bukhara, he shared his knowledge. It is considered that it is thanks to him that Bukhara started to flourish in spiritual and secular sciences and imams and scholars became respectable people.
Imam Abu Khafs Kabir became the founder of the Hanafi school in Mawarannahr (Transoxiana) and launched the first medrese of the Hanafi stream in Bukhara. There is a legend that when a holy sheikh was walking to a medrese through Bukhara market, then the entire noisy bazaar would respectably keep the voices down. The school where he was teaching, where later his son and grandson were teaching too (according to the legend, his wife was also teaching the female students) was the place where students from around the world were striving to be accepted.
Among famous followers of Imam Abu Khafs Kabir – Imam al-Bukhari is one of the most respectable figures in the Islamic scientific world, the author of the monumental collection of reliable hadith “al-Jami as-Sahih”.
Bukharians knew that the holy imam Abu Khafs Kabir would always respond to one’s requests for help regardless who it was coming from: from emir or a common citizen. Thanks to this, imam was called Eshoni Hojat-baror (“Ishan, resolving problems”). Bukhara dwellers would come to him for advices and directions through the gates in the north-west part of the Bukhara wall that later were called “Gates Hakk rakh” (road to truth). Even the whole district was called the same.
Akhmad ibn Khafs al-Kabir al-Bukhari passed away in 832. Bukhara city tales state that where there is a memorial complex of Abu Khafs Kabir Bukhari on the hill, there is also a burial place of Afrasiyab, the legendary king of Turan. The tomb of imam in the district of “Hakk rakh” turned into a place of pilgrimage of believers who are assured that prayers read in this holy place possess a special force. Interesting to note that the tomb of imam Abu Khafs Kabir made in the shape of a cube adorned with semi-sphere dome, architecturally reminds of the mausoleum of Samanids. And it was the son of Abu Khafs Kabir named Abu Abdallaha ibn Abu Khafs al-Bukhari who assisted the ruler of Bukhara Ismail Samani to come to power. Like his father he was a scientist, respected and influential figure in the holy city of Bukhara.
In the times of Communism, the burial place had been destroyed as many other monuments in the region. Memorial complex including the mausoleum of holy imam Khafs Kabir was restored in the years of independence and continues to remain the place of pilgrimage. Mausoleum of Khafs Kabir is frequently visited by groups’ of travellers from around the world who are on the Sufi tours.
Shaikh Muhammad Baba as-Samasi
Shaikh Muhammad Baba as-Samasi (q), the distinguished student of al-Azizan, was the Scholar of the Saints and the Saint of the Scholars. He was unique in the two knowledges, the inner and the outer. His blessings permeated every nation in his time. From his desire to learn, he caused every unseen knowledge and secret to appear. He was the pinnacle of the Suns of External and Internal Knowledge of the Eighth Hijra Century. One of his miraculous signs was his Ascension from the Dome of the Rock, which was his heart, to the station of the Knower of the Knowers. From everywhere those versed in spiritual wisdom made the pilgrimage to his Garden of Knowledge and circumambulated the Ka’aba of his Guidance.
He was born in Sammas, a village in the suburbs of Ramitan, three miles from Bukhara. He progressed in his journey by reading from the Sciences of the Qur’an, memorizing the Qur’an and the Prophetic Tradition (hadith), and becoming a great scholar in Jurisprudence. Then he began to study the Speculative Theology, Logic, and Philosophy (‘ilm al-Kalam), as well as History, until he was a walking encyclopedia of every kind of art and science. He followed Shaikh Ali Ramitani al-’Azizan (q) and he was constantly engaged in struggling against his self. He was put into seclusion on a daily basis, until he reached such a state of purity that his shaikh was permitted to transmit to his heart from the Unseen Heavenly Knowledge. He became very famous for his miraculous powers and his high state of sainthood. Shaikh ‘Ali Ramitani (q) chose him before his death as his successor and ordered all his students to follow him.
He used to say, as he passed the village of Qasr al-cArifan, “I am smelling from this place the scent of a Spiritual Knower who is going to appear and after whose name this entire Order will be known.” One day he passed the village and said, “I am smelling the scent so strongly that it is as if the Knower has now been born.” Three days passed, and the grandfather of a child came to Shaikh Muhammad Baba as-Samasi saying, “This is my grandson.” He said to his followers, “This baby is the knower that I was telling you about. I am seeing in his future that he is to be a guide of all humanity. His secrets are going to reach every sincere and pious person. The heavenly knowledge that Allah is going to shower on him will reach every house in Central Asia. Allah’s name is going to be engraved (Naqsh) on his heart. And the Order will take its name from this engraving.”
From His Sayings
The seeker must always stand on his keeping Allah’s Divine Orders, and he must be constant in the state of purity. He must first have a pure heart that never looks towards anything but Allah Almighty and Exalted. Then he must keep pure that inner self, which is never revealed to anyone. That is perceiving the true vision. The purity of the chest (sadr), consists of hope and contentment with His Will. Then purity of the spirit, which consists of modesty and reverence. Then purity of the stomach, which depends on only eating permitted food, and abstinence. This is followed by purity of the body, which is to leave desire. This is followed by purity of the hands, which consists of piety and endeavor. Then comes purity from sins, which is regret and heartbreak for past wrongdoing. After this is purity of the tongue, which consists of dhikr and asking forgiveness. Then he must purify himself from neglect and slackness, by developing fear of the Hereafter.
We must always be asking forgiveness, being careful in all our affairs, following the footsteps of the good and pious, following their internal teachings, and safeguarding the heart from all whispers.
Be guided by the teachings of your shaikhs, because they are more direct to cure you than reading books.
You must keep in the association of a saint. In that association you must keep your heart from gossiping and you must not speak in their presence in a loud voice, nor should you be busy in their company with prayers and voluntary worship. Keep their company in everything. Don’t talk when they are speaking. Listen to what they say. Don’t look in their homes at what they have, especially in their rooms and their kitchens. Never look towards another shaikh but keep the belief that your shaikh will make you arrive. And don’t ever connect your heart to another shaikh, as you might be harmed by that. leave behind whatever you have been raised on in your childhood.
One time I went to see my shaikh, Shaikh Ali ar-Ramitani. When I entered his presence, he said to me, ‘O my son, I am seeing in your heart the desire for an Ascension.’ As soon as he said that he placed me in the state of vision, where I saw myself walking day and night, from my country to reach the Mosque of the Dome, Masjid al-Aqsa. When I reached Masjid al-Aqsa, I entered the mosque and I saw a man there, clothed all in green. He said to me ‘Welcome, we have been waiting for you for a long time.’ I said, ‘O my shaikh, I left my country on such and such date. What is today’s date?’ He answered, ‘Today is the 27th of Rajab.’ I realized I had taken three months to reach the mosque, and to my surprise I had arrived on the same night as the night of the Prophet’s Ascension.
He told me, ‘Your shaikh, Sayyid ‘Ali ar-Ramitani has been waiting for you here for a long time.’ I went inside, and my shaikh was ready to lead the prayer. He lead the Night prayer. After completing the prayer, he looked at me and said, ‘O my son, I have been ordered by the Prophet to accompany you from the Mosque of the Dome to the Sidratul Muntaha, the same place to which the Prophet ascended.’ When he finished speaking the green man brought two creatures the like of which I had never seen before. We mounted these creatures and we were lifted up. Wherever we were lifted up, we were acquiring knowledge of those stations of what was between Earth and Heavens.
It is impossible to describe what we saw and learned in that ascension, because words cannot express what relates to the heart, and it is not conveyable except by taste and experience. We continued until we reached the State of the Reality of the Prophet (al-haqiqat al-Muhammadiyya), which is in the Divine Presence. As soon as we entered this state, my shaikh vanished and I vanished. We were seeing that there is nothing in existence in this universe except the Prophet . And we were perceiving that there is nothing beyond that except Allah Almighty and Exalted.
Then I heard the Prophet’s voice saying to me, ‘Ya Muhammad Baba as-Samasi, O my son, that path you are on is one of the most Distinguished ones, and those who have been chosen to be stars and beacons for human beings will be accepted in that path. Return, and I am supporting you with all my power, as Allah is supporting me with His Power. And keep in the service of your shaikh.” As the voice of the Prophet came to an end, I found myself standing in the presence of my shaikh. That is a great blessing, to be in the company of such powerful shaikhs, who can take you to the Divine Presence.
Bukhara is the birthplace of the seven great Sufis of the Naqshbandīya order.
The great representatives of Sufism lived here, led the religious and social life that led to education and prosperity of fertile Bukhara, for teaching spirituality and for increasing the emotional spirit contributed. Today you drive to Gishduwan (~ 50 km) and visit the 4 Maqams of the 7 Great Sufi Saints of Bukhara: Khaji Abdul Khaliq al-Ghujdawani, a spiritual mentor who leads the way of the Sohbet Sheiklh Effendià Khaji Ārif Riwgarī à Khaji leveled the Naqschbandīya teachings Mahmoud al-Anjir al-Faghnawi, the great spiritual Sufi master à Khaji Muhammad Baba Sammasi. Khaji Sammasi made an invaluable contribution to the development of Sufism, said the birth of a great person, the Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari. Return to Bukhara. Overnight in Bukhara
Bukhara is one of the most ancient cities of Uzbekistan, situated on a sacred hill, the place where sacrifices were made by fire-worshippers in springtime. This city was mentioned in a holy book “Avesto”. Bukhara city is supposed to be founded in the 13th cent. B.C. during the reign of Siyavushids who came to power 980 years before Alexander the Great. The name of Bukhara originates from the word “vihara” which means “monastery” in Sanskrit. The city was once a large commercial center on the Great Silk Road
Bukhara with more than 140 architectural monuments is a “town museum” dating back to the Middle Ages. 2,300 years later, ensembles like Poi-Kalyan, Ismail Samani Mausoleum, Ark, Lyabi-Khauz are attracting a lot of attention. The city consists of narrow streets, green parks and gardens, historical and architectural monuments belong to the different epochs, but locate very close to eahttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mHI3Vx__6NQch other.
Khaji Abdul Khali al-Ghujdawani
Abdul Khaliq al-Ghujdawani
He was known as the Shaikh of Miracles, One Who Shone Like the Sun, and he was the Master of the high stations of spirituality of his time. He was a Perfect Knower (carif kamil) in sufism and accomplished in asceticism. He is considered the Fountainhead of this Honorable Sufi Order and the Wellspring of the Khwajagan (Masters of Central Asia).
His father was Shaikh ‘Abdul Jamil, one of the most famous scholars in Byzantine times in both external and internal knowledge. His mother was a princess, the daughter of the king of Seljuk Anatolia.
Abdul Khaliq was born in Ghujdawan, a town near Bukhara in present-day Uzbekistan. There he lived and passed his life and was buried. He was a descendant of Imam Malik (r). In his childhood he studied the Qur’an and its tafsir (exegesis), ‘ilm al-Hadith (the study of Prophetic Traditions), the sciences of the Arabic language, and Jurisprudence with Shaikh Sadruddin. After mastering Sharica (the legal sciences) he moved on to jihad an-nafs (spiritual struggle), until he reached a high station of purity. He then moved to Damascus, where he established a school from which many students graduated. Each became a master of fiqh and hadith as well as spirituality, both in the regions of Central Asia as well as in the Middle East.
The author of the book al-Hada’iq al-Wardiyya tells us how he reached his high station within the Golden Chain: “He met Khidr (as) and accompanied him. He took from him heavenly knowledge and added it to the spiritual knowledge he had obtained from his shaikh, Yusuf al-Hamadani.
“One day when he was reading the Qur’an in the presence of Shaikh Sadruddin, he came upon the following ayat: “Call unto your Sustainer humbly, and in the secrecy of your hearts. Verily, He loves not those who transgress the bounds of what is right” [7:55]. This ayat prompted him to inquire of Shaikh Sadruddin about the reality of silent Dhikr and its method. Abdul Khaliq put his question thus: “In loud dhikr you have to use your tongue and people might listen to you and see you, whereas in the silent dhikr of the heart Shaytan might listen to you and hear you, since the Prophet said in his holy hadith: ‘Satan moves freely in the veins and arteries of the Sons of Adam.’ What, then, O my Shaikh Sadruddin, is the reality of ‘Call in the secrecy of your hearts?’ His shaikh replied, ‘O my son, this is a hidden, heavenly knowledge, and I wish that Allah Exalted and Almighty send you one of his saints to inspire on your tongue and in your heart the reality of secret dhikr.’ Read more here
Sheiklh Effendià Khaji Ārif Riwgarī à Khaji
He was a Knower whose Inner Truth appeared to him in all its brightness and light. He was a Sun of Knowledge who illuminated the dark sky of his Age. He was called the Light in the Garden of Reality and the Light in the Garden of the Prophet .
Arif (q) was born in the village of Riwakar six miles from Bukhara and one mile from Ghujdawan. He stood at the door of his Shaikh, Abdul Khaliq, and served him until the Shaikh gave him permission for irshad (giving guidance). He took the Secret of the Order from his Shaikh who witnessed his attainment to the state of perfection. He filled the countries around Bukhara with the scent of his blessings. He opened the minds and the hearts of the people of his time to the secrets of his knowledge.
His students recorded many of his sayings. The following are some of them:
Trust in God until He becomes your Teacher. Make the Remembrance of Death your partner.
Too much hope in the future veils you from the good found in Allah’s Way.
Whoever says ten times in a day, ‘Oh Allah Guide the Nation of Muhammad. Oh Allah Bless the Nation of Muhammad. Oh Allah remove all afflictions from the Nation of Muhammad,’ will be written among the group of saints known as the Abdal.
Whoever asks for Paradise without any good deeds it will be written for him as the Sin of Sins. Whoever awaits intercession without a cause, has a form of pride.
It is surprising to see so many Righteous (saliheen), and yet so few Truthful believers (sadiqeen).
To achieve healing from any affliction keep your affliction secret from people because they can be of no benefit to you. They can neither help you nor can they keep it from reaching you.
There are three kinds of hearts: the heart like a mountain, which nothing can move; the heart like a palm-tree, its roots firm but its branches in motion; and the heart like a feather, which the wind blows from right to left.
Who hopes to protect his religion, must avoid the company of people.
O Allah, whenever you want to punish me, do it, but don’t keep me away from Your Presence
Khwaja Mahmoud al-Anjir al-Faghnawi
He was a Master from whose heart the Water of Knowledge and Wisdom gushed forth. His heart was polished by the Divine Effulgence, making him one of the best of the Chosen Ones, purified from all darkness and misery, and translucent as crystal.
He was born in the village of Anjir Faghna, three miles from Bukhara. In his youth he used to work in construction. He devoted his life to the guidance of people to Allah’s Presence. He was the first in the line of the Masters of Wisdom (Khwajagan) to introduce the method of loud dhikr in accordance with the needs of the time and as required by the conditions of the seekers. When he was asked why he used the loud dhikr, he replied, “To awaken the sleeper.”
The Controversy on Loud Dhikr
One day Khwaja Mahmoud attended a scholarly gathering and Shaikh Shams al-Halwani said to the Shaikh Hafiz ad-Din, an authority in external knowledge, to ask Shaikh Mahmad Faghnawi why he was doing loud dhikr. Shaikh Mahmoud Faghnawi said, “it is the best dhikr to awaken an outsider from his state of slumber and to attract the attention of the heedless so that he direct himself towards Allah following the shaikh who is making dhikr, straighten himself on the Way, and make his repentance to Allah a pure one, which is the key to all good and happiness. If your intention is correct you will find the authority to use the loud dhikr.”
Shaikh Hafiz ad-Din asked him to clarify to him just who is permitted and allowed to practice the loud dhikr, in order to justify the practice to those who opposed it. He said “the loud dhikr is for anyone who wishes to reach the state of purifying his tongue from lying and backbiting, and free his private actions from committing what is forbidden, and clean his heart from pride and the love of fame.”
One day the Shaikh Ali Ramitani (q), said that a man saw Khidr and asked him, “Tell me where I can find someone that is keeping the sharica of the Prophet and the Straight Path, in order that I may follow him.” He said, “that one whom you are seeking is Shaikh Mahmad al-Anjir al-Faghnawi.”
It is said that Shaikh Mahmoud walked on the footsteps of the Prophet Muhammad in the station of Knowledge of God (macrifa) and he was also on the footsteps of Sayiddina Musa in the station of Kalimullah, the station of One who Speaks with Allah.
Shaikh Mahmoud radiated his knowledge from his masjid, which he built in the village of Wabiqni, close to Bukhara. He passed away in the village of Qilit, near Bukhara, on the 17th of Rabi’ul Awwal, in the year 717 H. He passed the secret of the Naqshbandi Sufi Order to his khalif, Ali ar-Ramitani (q)
Khaji Muhammad Baba Sammasi
Sheikh Ali Ramitani (Urdu عزیزان شیخ علی الرامتانی ) was born in the Ramitan area around Bukhara Uzbekistan. Due to his specialty in weaving cloth, Sheikh Ali Ramitani is often called Sheikh Nessac (weaver). After studying religious science, Sheikh Ali Ramitani conferred on Mahmood Anjir-Faghnawi When Sheikh Mahmud Injir Faghnawi was about to die, he handed over his ordination (tabligh) to Sheikh Ali Ramatini q.s followed by the observance of the other disciples.
He was a Noble Flag of Islam and a great scholar who opened the locks to the treasures of the heart and explained secrets from the Unseen. He received, from the Kingdom of Knowers, Bounties and Prizes and Honors. He guided the needy to the station of Spiritual Knowledge. His name flew high in the skies of Guidance, and there are no words to express his knowledge nor his state. To us he may be described, like the Mother of Books (the Holy Qur’an), as “one written in an elevated state.”
He was born in the village of Ramitan, two miles from Bukhara. He lived there, and was avid in learning the knowledge of the Divine Law (sharica), until he achieved fame in the Sciences of Traditions (Hadith), Qur’an, Jurisprudenct (Fiqh), and the Exemplary Path of the Prophet (Sunnah). He was a reference (marjac) for anyone asking for legal decisions (fatawa).
Then he contacted Shaikh Mahmad al-Anjir al-Faghnawi for spiritual guidance. In the Shaikh’s presence he was lifted up to the high stations of the Manifestation of Divine Love and the Divine Presence. He became known and famous under the name Azizan, a word in Persian used for one of elevated station. Following are some of his many sayings:
Do and do not count. Confess your shortcomings and continue work.
Attain to the presence of the Divine, especially when you are eating and when you are talking.
Allah Almighty and Exalted said in His Holy Qur’an, “O Believers, repent to Allah with a pure repentance.” This verse brings us good tidings. Since Allah asks for repentance (tawba), it means He will accept it, because if He were not going to accept your repentance, He would not tell you to make tawba
The Prophet said, ‘Allah looks at the heart of the Believer every night and day 360 times.’ This means that the heart has 360 entrances. And every organ has 360 roots, all of them connected to the heart. So if the heart, under the influence of Dhikrullah, is led to the station of Allah’s Gaze, this will lead all organs of the body to the Gaze of Allah. As a result, every organ will be obedient to Allah and from the light of that obedience every organ will be connected to the Divine Outpouring. This is what draws the Gaze of Mercy from Allah to the heart of the Rememberer.
More Controversy on Loud Dhikr
Mawlana Sayfuddin Fidda, a great scholar in his time, asked him, “Why do you raise your voice in Dhikr?” Sheikh Ali (q) said:
O my brother, Muslim scholars throughout the centuries, from the time of the Tabicin (the generation following the Companions) up until today, have permitted the loud dhikr in the last moments of life. At this time those near the dying encourage him to repeat the testimony of faith. The Prophet said, laqqina mawtakum shahadatan LA ILAHA ILLALLAH (“make your dying ones say: There is no god but Allah”). In the Science of Sufism, the scholars have emphasized that each moment may be your last. This leads to the conclusion that you may say LA ILAHA ILLALLAH in a loud voice at every moment of your life.
He was asked by Shaikh Mawlana Badruddin al-Midani, who was a great scholar in his time, “Allah has ordered us in the Qur’an to do excessive dhikr by His saying, “Remember Allah excessively” [33:41]. Is that dhikr to be by the tongue or by the heart?” Shaikh cAli Ramitani (q) answered:
For the beginner it is best that it be by the tongue, and for the adept it is best that it be by the heart.” He continued, “This is because for the beginner to remember Allah he must apply a great deal of effort. Since his heart is distracted and unstable and his efforts are scattered, it is better for him to do it with the tongue. But the adept has already polished his heart and is easily affected by dhikr. All of his organs become Rememberers so that the whole body of the adept, both externally and internally, remembers Allah in every moment. The equivalence of this is that one day’s dhikr of the adept is equal to one year’s dhikr of a beginner.
The duty of a guide is first to know the capability of the seeker. Then he will put on his tongue the most perfect method of dhikr to raise him to the highest station.
If there had been on earth one of the followers of Abdul Khaliq al-Ghujdawani at the time of Hallaj, Hallaj would never have been crucified.” This means that there would have been someone capable of defending him from the accusations of the ignorant.
Shaikh Fakhruddin an-Nuri, another famous scholar in his time, asked him, “Allah mentioned in the Holy Qur’an that on the Day of Promises he asked, Alastu bi Rabbikum, qala bala [7:172] (“Am I not your Lord? — They said: Yes!”), whereas on the Judgement Day He will ask, liman al-mulk ul-yawm [40:16] (‘to whom belongs the Kingdom on this day?’) and no one will answer. Why is it that they answered the question, ‘Am I not your Lord’ whereas on the Judgement Day they will not answer?” In His answer, Sheikh Ali Ramitani (q) demonstrated the incredible depth of understanding of Qur’an and Holy Hadith possessed by the Naqshbandi Masters. He said:
When the first question, ‘Am I not your Lord?’ was put to humankind, it was the day Allah had placed the obligations of the Sacred Law on all human beings. To reply when asked a question is an obligation under the Law. That is why they answered the question. However on the Judgement Day, all obligations have come to an end, and at that time, awareness of the Truth and the spiritual world begins. In spirituality there is no utterance better than silence, because spirituality is a flow from and to the heart unrelated to the tongue. That is why to the second question there is no need to give an answer. Allah Himself answers His own question, ‘To whom belongs the Kingdom this Day?’ by saying, lillah il-Wahid il-Qahhar, ‘It belongs to Allah, the Unique, the Irresistible’.
Upon receiving a heavenly order he moved from Bukhara to Khwarazm. When he reached Khwarazm, he didn’t enter the city, but stayed at its gate and sent his messenger to the king to tell him,
A poor weaver has come to enter your kingdom and to stay in it. Do you give permission or not? If you give permission he will enter. If not he will go back.
He asked the messenger to obtain a written letter, signed by the king, granting his permission. When he received that letter the Shaykh moved inside the city and began to spread the Naqshbandi Sufi Way. Every day he went to the town center, speaking with the people, asking them to come to his association and paying their wages for that day. He made the entire city his followers, pious worshippers and dedicated keepers of remembrance. He became very famous in the city. People used to visit him from all around. His good reputation made the king and his ministers afraid of his influence on the people. They tried to remove him from the city. Having foreseen this event, he sent the letter back to the king. At that the king came to the shaikh and apologized, asking for his forgiveness. He became one of his foremost murids.
Shaykh Ali died on Monday, 18th of Dhul Qa’idah in the year 715 H / 1315 CE or 721 H/1321 CE, at the age of 130 years.
He had two sons who were very famous in following the footsteps of their father. However, he did not pass the secret on to them. Instead he passed it to Shaikh Muhammad Baba as-Samasi (q).
From Maqam of Sayyidina Abdul Khaliq Al Ghujduwani, Uzbekistan
Sayyidina Abdul Khaliq Al Ghujduwani is Imam of Tariqa, Imam of Khatm al Khwajagan. His way is Silent Dhikr, Silent Khatm. Many people are asking, “Why are you not doing Khatm al Khwajagan aloud? You Read Al Fatiha silently, you read Alam Nashrah (Surat As-Sharh) silently, you read everything like this. Why did you change this?” We are not changing this. When Mawlana Sheikh Nazim Qaddas Allahu Sirrahu began before London, he was making silent Dhikr, silent Khatm al Khwajagan every time even in Cyprus, but many people didn’t see this. But when he started to go to London, many new Muslims were coming and they didn’t know anything. And worse than them are the Muslims, who were born Muslims, but their families forgot everything. They can’t say anything, even Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim. For this, he was doing that and it continued like this. But he did not order this, it was only temporary in order for people to know this, to learn and to continue.
From now on, it is forbidden for anybody in the whole world to do loud Dhikr. Women or men, everybody must do it silently. Now Alhamdulillah everybody has a phone. They pay too much money for this, and they have everything inside it. If you don’t know, when it is said: “7 times Fatiha”, you can open and read. If you don’t know Alam Nashrah (Surat As-Sharh), you can open and read. They read everything today, [spending] 5 hours on WhatsApp and other nonsense things, but when it comes to the Qur’an, they don’t know.
This order is coming now Alhamdulillah. So this is very important. Whoever does this is not from our way. Whoever does this is out of Mawlana Sheikh Nazim’s and the Silsila’s (chain) way. This is the teaching of the Naqshbandi Tariqah. Who can learn can learn. Who can’t learn, can open and read because he is not in prayer, he can do anything. But for the Dhikr Jahri (vocal Dhikr), after finishing Khatm al Khwajagan, we imitate (Tashabbuh) the 40 Tariqas; so we can do this.
This is very important. It is very powerful to do it with voice. That’s why, Sayyidina Abdul Khaliq Al Ghujduwani was taught by Sayyidina Al Khidr ʿalayhi s-salām to do Dhikr Khafi (silent Dhikr) in his heart. He asked, “How can we do it?” He said, “Go in the water and say this Nafee Esbat: “La Ilaha illa Allah, La Ilaha illa Allah, La Ilaha illa Allah” inside”; [Mawlana points to the heart]. But when you do the Khatm al Khwajagan you must not make it in your heart but by your tongue and silently. Insha’Allah Allah ﷻ accept your Ziyarah, and accept the Dua for all of you. Insha’Allah you came for the sake of Allah ﷻ and for the sake of Awliya’ullah, it will be of more Barakah for you insha’Allah.
The city tour starts after breakfast. Today you will continue to explore the city of Samarkand. You will visit Registan Square, the Ulug Begs Observatory, which was built in the 15th century by Ulug Beg, one of the most famous rulers and scientists of Samarkand. Thereafter stroll along local Broadway surrounded by souvenir shops, tea houses, Candy stores and workshops. Then visit the Bibi-Chanum Mosque and the National Siab Bazaar, an oriental bazaar where you can buy traditional Uzbek handicrafts and find local sweets. Travel to Bukhara by bus (~ 4.5 hours). Overnight in Bukhara
Fajr Prayer/ morning prayer
History of Samarkand
There are cities which centuries-old history embodies the history of whole nation and countries, reflecting the way passed by many generations. Samarkand is one of the most ancient cities in the world. As other first centers of human civilization – Babylon and Memphis, Athens and Rome, Alexandria and Byzantium – Samarkand was intended to go through many events and shakes.
History of Samarkand goes back in remote days. Archeological finds and chronicle records of eyewitnesses and ancient historians allowed to establish with full reliability that a man lived on the territory of modern city many centuries before the Common Era.
Advantageous geographical location, rather favorable climate, abundance of natural springs with fine water, nearness of mountains with large wild fowl, flowing Zaravshan river – all these factors always provided favorable conditions for human settlings in that area, where strong walls, castles, majestic buildings and temples of Samarkand raised some centuries before the Commone Era.
In historical events of ancient time the earliest mention about Samarkand (also known as Marakand) dates to 329th year B.C., in descriptions of eyewitnesses and participants of conquering army of Alexandr the Great. By that time Samarkand was a big city with crowded population, developed crafts, trade, and culture. It had unassailable citadel and outside defensive wall with length of 10,5 kilometers.
According to new archeological excavations scientists concluded that Samarkand was founded much earlier than Greek-Macedonian conquest and already during the epoch of the Akhemenids State (6-4th centuries BC) it was quite developed city. Hence the “age” of Samarkand is over 2500 years, starting from the origin on the forest hill of Afrosiab, though it is far older.
Over the history the city saw half-savage tribes of Sacs and Massagets, iron flanks of Greek-Macedonin army, hordes of cruel Kara-Kidani. The city withstood invasion of the Arabs, who brought with them a new religion – Islam. Bloody hordes of Ghengis-Khan attacked peaceful houses with fire and sword. Samarkand became the capital of Great Empire of Tamerlane, ranged from Ind River to Bosfor.
After Timur’s death all his empire came to the power of his children and grandchildren. Samarkand and surroundings devolved to Ulugbek, Timur’s grandson. Ulugbek ruled Samarkand during 40 years. For the whole history Uligbek was the most peace-loving ruler. He almost did not participate in aggressive campaigns over ruling his state. He visited other countries many times but only to study traditions, culture, and customs of those countries. He was great scientist, astronomer, and mathematician; therefore he brought many scientists from different countries for science development in his county.
14-15th centuries is the period of the Golden Age of the city. City construction is at its zenith: the city is surrounded by strong fortified wall, new streets, paved of stone, are laid through the city, blue domes of magnificent ensembles tower above the city. Most of these objects survived our days and are the main symbols of the city.
Today Samarkand like most cities of Central Asia is divided into two parts: old and new city. New part is an administrative part of the city, including industrial and cultural centers, high educational institutions. Old part of the city includes historical monuments, shops, workshops, old private houses. Generally, an excursion is held in the old part of the city. Samarkand numbers 500 thousands people. This is multinational city, more that 100 nations live in Samarkand. Samarkand takes second place in Uzbekistan by number of population and territory.
Registan Square, Samarkand
The Registan Square is a real gem located in the very heart of the ancient city of Samarkand. It has gained its worldwide fame thanks to the great architectural ensemble that has become a monument of the oriental architecture. From three sides, the square is surrounded with grand madrassah, portals of which are facing the center of the space. All three erections have their own unique décor. It is by virtue of these buildings, preserved on the territory of the city, Samarkand was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2001.
The history of the Registan Square
Translated from Uzbek, “registan” means a sand place. In the ancient times, this central square was covered by sand. The territory was not initially surrounded by madrassah; those great erections appeared rather later. In that period, authorities of the city were gathering people on the square to announce khan’s orders, held celebrations and public executions, and collected the army leaving to war.
In the past, one could see many trade rows around the square, where artisans and farmers were selling their goods. All main roads of Samarkand led to Registan where it was always noisy and lively.
Various rulers during their reign would change the main significance of the square, but since those times and up to now, Registan has always been the center of the city social life.
There are three madrassahs on the square: Ulughbek, Sherdor and Tilla-Kori, that are the main sights of the city. They were erected by two rulers at different times.
The heir of the great state of the Temurids, a well-known mathematician and astronomer Ulughbek, assumed the authority in 1409. In year 1417, he gave an order to build the madrassah that would later be renamed in his honor. It was the first erection on the Registan Square. The word “madrassah” stems from Arabic and literally means “teaching and learning place”.
In 1420, the construction of madrassah ended. On the outside, the building, located on the western part of the square, was done in the form of a rectangle; inside there is a square yard with entrances to the student cells (approximately for 100 people) and learning rooms. The façade of the madrassah looks out on the square, completed with two tall minarets in the corners. Special attention should be given to an exquisite interior of the building. Glazed bricks create beautiful ornaments on the yellowish laying of the walls. The madrassah portal is adorned with patterns of ten-pointed stars symbolizing the sky, and astronomy.
At that time, it was the largest scientific-educational establishment in Samarkand. Here students were taught philosophy, astronomy, mathematics, theology. Along with the madrassah, caravan-sarai and khanqah (hanaqa) of Ulughbek were constructed as well. Two centuries later, they would build two other madrassah on the place of the vendors’ shelter and khanqah, and they would complete the architectural ensemble that we can all see today.
In 1612, Yalangtush Bahadur was appointed the emir of Samarkand. He was the governor-general of the Bukhara khans and by that time, he was already ruling feudal principalities, was known as a skillful politician and an educated commander.
Being a ruler of the city, he decided to construct another madrassah on the Square of Registan opposite the building erected by Ulughbek. According to the project of architects, the new madrassah was supposed to be located on the eastern side of the square and be a mirroring reflection of existing building on Registan. However, the exact mirroring concurrence did not work as the architect did not take one peculiarity into consideration – 200 years have passed since the construction of the Ulughbek madrassah, and the building had shrunk into the ground and the level of the square itself had risen to 2 meters. In the result, the new madrassah turned out to be taller. However, it is rather difficult to notice this different visually.
There was Ulughbek’s hanaqa located on the site of the territory planned for construction, that had noticeably dilapidated by that time. It was taken to pieces and the main part of the material was used for erection of the new building.
Construction lasted until 1636. Emir Yalangtush Bahadur wished his creation not to give in either in pomposity or space to the Ulughbek madrassah. Despite the fact that the façade of the building was completely resembling the first madrassah, they had used new technology in construction, not common in the 14th century. Workers applied rather progressive techniques that speeded the process.
Upon construction, the madrassah was named in honor of the ordering party. However, the name did not find its usage among people, and the building was renamed to Sher-Dor. The name comes from the images on the portal: two big golden tigers carrying a sun on their backs and heading after white fallow-deer were adoring the entrance. Sher means tiger (lion) and the name is translated as “adorned with tigers”. It was this plot that later became a national symbol of Uzbekistan.
Ten years later since the construction of the Sher-Dor madrassah, the ruler of Samarkand Yalangtush Bahadur had planned to erect another building that was supposed to complete the ensemble.
The construction began in 1646, in the northern part of the Registan Square, on the place of the caravan-sarai. The architect decided that the new madrassah should be another copy of already existing buildings, though would be located in the center.
The author of the project had an idea of achieving an architectural integrity of all erections and constructed the façade in the way that it visually created a closed space on the square.
The construction of the Tilla-Kori madrassah lasted more than 14 years and finished in 1660. The main façade of the building is done in two levels; the central portal is silted with a five-ended deep niche with two entrances leading to the inner closed yard. There is a blue-domed tower of the mosque to the left of the portal, with two minarets standing on both sides of the frontal part. The construction beautifully balances two bigger madrassah without disturbing the unity of the architectural style.
The name “Tilla Kori” was given thanks to its décor. Artists had used the painting method of “kundal” for decoration that contained mostly gilt. Among all three madrassah, this erection has a rich decoration of walls that leaves everyone impressed with the abundance of golden colors. Tilla Kori means “gilded”.
Tilla-Kori madrasah, Samarkand
The construction of the Tilla-Kori Madrassah was commenced in 1646 by the order of the Samarkand ruler Yalangtush Bakhadur and was finished only in 1660. It is the final building in the Registan architectural Ensemble. It was built on the site of caravan-saray, which had existed for over two centuries. The name of the Madrassah is derived from the rich golden decoration on the faсade. “Tilla-Kori” is translated as “decorated with gold”. Square-shaped building of the Madrassah fills the whole area between the Ulugbek Madrassah and the Sher-Dor Madrassah. The façade, faced to the square is symmetrical and consists of the high portal and two floors of arched niches, flanked with towers. Khudjras (cells), intended for students, look on the large inner yard.
The entire building is lavishly decorated with various herbal ornaments and linear patterns. The major part of decoration was lost, but due to efforts of restorers it was recovered in the second half of XX century. In 2001 this beautiful monument of the Central-Asian architecture was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
In the western part of the Madrassah there is the mosque, crowned with the big glazed dome. Its inner decoration amazes by the quality of the gold, applied by the method of “kyndal”. For a long time this mosque was the main mosque in Samarkand.
Registan Square. Now and then
It has been long since the moment of the first erection on the Registan Square up to now- already 6 centuries. In the end of the 17th century, Samarkand had gone through severe economic decline. The status of the capital city passed to Bukhara and merchants of the Great Silk Road would keep away from the city. There were only around 1000 families left in it at that time, and once wonderful buildings of madrassah were a shelter for wild animals. It was only in 1875 when Samarkand regained its past trading significance and the Registan Square was leveled and bridged.
However, in 1918 Samarkand faced changes again. The Soviet rule prohibited activity of any madrassah as religious schools. During this time, erections endured many natural damaging factors: earthquakes, harsh weather conditions. The larger part of the cladding of the building and the painting décor were lost. Nevertheless, it was the Soviet rule that had given the order to restore the entire Registan and give it the status of the significant historical monument on the Great Silk Road.
Restoration works had lasted many years and finished just before the fall of the Soviet Union. Scientists literally had to collect the whole interior and the exterior of the buildings and smaller façade fragments, restoring all elements.
The look that we can see on the Registan today is painstaking work of hundreds of restorers. If there was no decision taken during the Soviet rule to restore the unique monument, this beautiful ancient sight would never stand in front of our eyes.
Today different concerts, celebrations and other bright events of the city and the Republic are held on the Registan Square. Thousands of tourists’ daily flow to the square in order to see the grand beauty.
Registan is a valuable gift that we had inherited from our ancestors, embodying the entire charm of the eastern architecture.
Maqam of the Grandson of Imam Jafar as-Sadiq
Mawlana Shaykh Muhammad Adil ق visiting the resting place of Shaykh Makhdum Adam
Bibi Hanim Mosque, Samarkand
The majestic blue domes of the Bibi-Khanym Mosque are the unusual sight.It takes one’s breath even from understanding the scale of construction of this monument, impressing with its size and beauty. In antiquity the dome of this mosque was compared with the dome of heaven and the arch of portal – with the Milky Way.
As well as all Samarkand monuments the Bibi Khanym Mosque also has the beautiful legend. According to it, the formidable ruler built the mosque in honor of his favorite wife Bibi Khanym. After successful campaign to India Temur decided to build the biggest building of the East – the mosque – which should have exceeded all mosques of the world by its size. Sparkling walls, high minarets, wide portal of the mosque, decorated with carved marble, must have praised for centuries the name of Temur and his favorite wife.
Hundreds of architects, painters and builders were taken to Samarkand. The construction lasted for 5 years (1399-1404) and when Temur came back from another campaign it was ready-built. The yard of the mosque was surrounded by luxurious galleries, the arches of which lied on more than three hundred marble columns, minarets towered on each side of it.
Unfortunately soon after the completion of the construction, when the mosque became the place of ceremonial acts of worships, the building began collapsing. The idea of the creator to build such magnificent building was too bold for that period. The majestic arch of the portal, which according to Tamerlane’s plan should have repeated the Milky Way, could not withstand the test of time and had collapsed in the very first years after the construction.
Sher-Dor Madrasah, Samarkand
Sher-Dor Madrasah was built on the Registan Square, Samarkand in 1619-1636. The name is translated as “Madrassah with Lions”. It is the distorted and exaggerated reflection of the Ulugbek Madrasah, which is located just opposite, on the western side of the Registan Square. The difference in age between them is 200 years. Sher-Dor has larger area and sizes, but it yields to its “elder brother” by the quality of finishing works.
On the outside and inside this Madrasah is decorated with bright ornaments of glazed brick, walls and towers are covered with majolica of various patterns of climber flowers and quotations from Kuran on Arabic. But some part of finishing is irretrievably lost, though scientists, historians and restorers try to recover the initial appearance of Sher-Dor Madrasah.
By architecture the Sher-Dor Madrasah almost repeats the Ulugbek Madrasah, i.e. it is the square building with inner yard, khudjras (cells) for students and two rooms for classes. The Madrasah was considered as the modern building of that time, because the latest architectural innovations were used at the construction. Moreover such grand building has a set of constructive peculiarities, which make it one of the best architectural monuments in Samarkand.
In addition the Madrasah of Sher-Dor has some features. In the center of the arch above the entrance there is the image of swastika, which from ancient times was the symbol of abundance and fertility. Also there are images of tigers with the sun on their backs on each side of the arch.
For the whole period of existence the Madrasah of Sher-Dor has been restored many times. The largest works were conducted in the beginning of XX century by Soviet architect, out of them the most famous was V.G. Shukhov. Today this monument of Samarkand architecture is one of the main sights of the city. In 2001 the Madrasah of Sher-Dor entered the UNESCO World Heritage List.
the National Siab Bazaar, an oriental bazaar where you can buy traditional Uzbek handicrafts and find local sweets.
…There is no tastier bread than Samarkand one. Real Samarkand bread should be eatable within three years. It is enough to splash water on it and heat in the tandyr (clay oven used to bake bread). Everyone, who has ever visited Samarkand, does not leave it without Samarkand bread. It is various: small with sesame seeds, large glazed bread and always incomparably delicious, so there is nothing surprising in the fact, that people said legends about it.
Once Khan of Bukhara asked his advisers, why the bread is taken from Samarkand to Bukhara, if they could bake it in Bukhara. He was told that bread would be tasty if it was baked only in Samarkand, but the khan did not believe the advisers and ordered to bring Samarkand bakers to Bukhara. The order was carried out. Khan sent people to Samarkand to find the best baker in the city and ordered him to bake bread in Bukhara. But the bread turned out different than it was expected. Advisers decided that the case was in the ingredients and brought from Samarkand a tandyr oven, flour, water, but even then the bread differed from Samarkand one. Then the baker said: “Probably the case is in the air.” But it was impossible to transport the air, and soon the baker was allowed to return home, and people began to carry bread from Samarkand as before.
This tradition has been preserved to this day. No one leaves from Samarkand without the famous bread, which remain soft for a long time.
Hazrat Hyzr Mosque, Samarkand
Hazrat Hyzr mosque is located on the south of Afrasiab fort. The area of the Mosque is 30 x 16 m. It stands on a natural elevation where a steep stairs leads. The mosque consists of aivan and khanaka. The mosque’s aivan (an indoor canopy standing on the columns) is richly decorated with ornaments. There is an entrance from aivan to khanaka (a monastery for dervishes). Hanaka is square, with mihrabi niche with the direction to Mecca in the middle and two hudzhry (monks’ cells) on the sides. The minaret is located separately. It consists of a trunk with a spiral staircase and a crowning lantern with ribbed dome.
The Hazrat Hyzr/ Khidr mosque is a medieval Muslim shrine, the dating of the 8th century. It is named after the prophet Hezra, who patronizes travellers in the legends, has knowledge of “living water”. The Hazrat Hyzr mosque is located in the southern part of Afrasiab, near the ensemble of Shakhi-Zinda tombs, in the northeast of Samarkand. The shrine, which can now be seen in Samarkand, began to be built on the ruins of an ancient foundation.
The mosque is a model of the traditional architecture of the Samarkand school. The rectangular structure has a winter khanaka with a dome, a column avian, a mihrab with two hujras, a separate minaret on the east side and a guldast tower in the west. The beauty of the mosque is emphasized by its elegant decor with the ceiling paintings, carved ganch in ornaments and ganch details on the ledge. The rectangular structure has a winter khanaka with a dome, a column avian, a mihrab with two hujras, a separate minaret on the east side and a guldast tower in the west. The beauty of the mosque is emphasized by its elegant decor with the ceiling paintings, carved ganch in ornaments and ganch details at the ledge. Its interior decoration is impressive as well as the exterior of the building – it is decorated with majolica, mosaics with polished bricks, gilded paintings, plant and geometric patterns, bluestones. The beauty of the spacious patio, in which up to ten thousand believers could be prayed before, is striking.
The facade of Hazrat Hyzr mosque consists of a high base with arched niches, quince, over which the west is closed guldastoy (corner semi-tower) with the brick facing. The aivan’s top includes a number of bricks. To the east, the system includes a mosque organically portal darvazahany with guldastami and beautiful carved gates. This series closes eastern minaret. Subtle feeling manifested in the performance of the master carved door. Here division and ornamentation are made with a shallow profile, which in this case well, because the contrast shadow quite clearly reveals the shape of the ornament, while preserving the integrity basis. The building is replete with dates that mainly indicate restoration time; majority of them belong 19-20th centuries.
In the VII century, Samarkand was captured by troops of the Arab Caliphate. During this period, there was built the first Muslim mosque in the city – Hazrat Hyzr. Its name was the prophet Hazrat Hyzra, which is considered one of the major Islamic figures.
The Koran refers to him as “a servant of God”. According to the hadeeth Allah will put him above Musa (Moses). It is believed that he had defended against fire and thieves alleviated sufferings, helped in difficulties, and those who meet with him, gave happiness and long life. All of this is tied to its divine origin.
A legend says that Hazret-Hyzr helped the patron of Samarkand, Kusam ibn Abbas, to escape and become immortal.See here
Once there was a heathen temple here in which idols were worshipped in the first years of Islam. The temple was converted into a mosque. The very same mosque is mentioned in many religious books, which is described as a place of worship at the highest point of Samarkand, which was located next to the main well of the city Arziz which provides the city with water. Incidentally, in 2002, the well depth of 40 meters was restored, and today it is the same crystal-clear waters as hundreds of years ago.
Honoring the mosque Hazrat Hyzr was so high that residents of the city is constantly restored building, trying to make it even more beautiful. Perhaps that is why the original appearance construction was not preserved. Not a single source was preserved on the construction of the mosque, but on the walls and floor of the mosque there are many inscriptions on the work on the restoration of worship construction.
The pilgrimage to sacred sites of Samarkand began from here and hence there also opens a panoramic view to the other famous places of the city, the mosque of Bibi Khanum, a complex of Shahi Zinda and others.
Apart from all, Hyzr is also the patron saint of travelers. There is a tradition, leaving Samarkand ask blessings from Hazrat Hyzra. This is where we should start a journey through the city, and here is his finishing.
Abul Abbas, al-Khidr
Whoever enters the Way without a guide will take a hundred years to travel a two-day journey. The Prophet said, ‘In this Way, you have no more faithful companions than your works.’ How can these works and this earning in the way of righteousness be accomplished without a master, O father? Can you practice the meanest profession in the world without a master’s guidance? Whoever undertakes a profession without a master becomes the laughingstock of city and town.
Abul `Abbas is Khidr , whom Allah mentioned in the Holy Qur’an [18:65f.] as the servant of Allah who met with the Prophet Musa . He preserved and maintained the Reality of the Golden Chain until the next link in the Chain, `Abdul Khaliq, could assume his destined station.
Imam Bukhari relates in the Book of Prophets that the Prophet said, “Al-Khidr (‘the Green Man’) was so named because he sat on a barren white land once, after which it turned luxuriantly green with vegetation.”
The important role of Khidr as the murshid (initiator) of saints may be illustrated by the importance of his role as the murshid of prophets, particularly of the Prophet Musa . Moses was a highly powerful prophet, one of the five greatest ones whom Allah sent to this world: Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad, Peace and blessings be upon them. Yet despite Moses’ elevated knowledge, Allah caused him to be in need of Khidr, even though Khidr was not a prophet. This is to teach us, as Allah said in the Holy Qur’an, that “Above every knower there is a greater knower” (Yusuf, 76).
The story of Moses’ encounter with Khidr is related in Surat al-Kahf (65-82) and goes thus: Moses and his servant found one of Allah’s servants whom Allah had honored uniquely and had taught knowledge from His Own Presence. Moses said to him, “I would like to accompany you.” He answered him: “You cannot bear to accompany me.” Moses was surprised and insisted he was able to do so. Khidr said: “You cannot, but if you do, do not ask about what I am doing no matter what you see me do. On that condition alone you may follow; but if you wish to ask questions, don’t follow me.” This meant that Khidr was going to do something that Moses would not understand, although he was the Messenger of a great religion. He was in need of Khidr to teach him something.
They took a boat and crossed the Tiberias River in Palestine. When they had reached the middle of the river, Khidr made a hole in the boat in order for it to sink. Moses was unable to keep silent, saying: “Why are you doing this childish act? Those people gave you the boat, are you now scuttling it?” Khidr replied: “Did I not tell you you would be unable to keep company with me?” Moses had not yet understood, even though he was a prophet and could read hearts, that there was something taking place that he did not know. They continued and found a young boy. As soon as they saw him, Khidr killed him. Moses said: “What are you doing? You sank a boat, and now you kill a child? This is against all laws!” Again Khidr said: “Did I not tell you you could not keep company with me? The third time you ask me, we will part ways.” Then they reached a city where they asked for food. No one gave them any food, and they threw them out. On their way, they found a wall on the verge of collapse. Khidr rebuilt that wall and made it straight. Moses asked: “Why are you doing this? No one accepted us as their guests in this city, and yet you are building their wall for them?” Khidr said: “This is the point where we separate, for you did not understand the wisdom of what I am doing.”
“O Moses, what we do is what Allah tells us to do. First I caused this boat to sink because there is a tyrant who is seizing every boat from the poor people on this side of the city. In order for these people not to lose their boat, I made it sink. That tyrant is going to die tomorrow, and tomorrow they can retrieve their boat and use it safely. I killed the child because Allah did not want that child to cause his parents, who believe in you, to leave and run away from your religion. Allah will give them better children than him. I built the wall which belonged to a man who was in life very generous to the poor. When he passed away, he left a treasure buried under the wall for his two orphans. Were that wall to come down, people would see the treasure and take it. I restored it in order for the two children to receive their treasure later. You did not understand God’s wisdom.”
That was Moses who, with all the honor bestowed on him by God, found himself ignorant before Khidr. How can we, who know so little in comparison to Moses, consider ourselves knowledgeable if Moses himself, with all his knowledge in the Divine Presence, was unable to understand certain things? This is a lesson in humility for human beings, and particularly for scholars and religious leaders: “Your knowledge is not worth mentioning. There are others more and highly more knowledgeable than you. As high or deep as you travel into knowledge, there is deeper depth and higher height than where you stand.”
That is why, when someone sits to give advice, he must sit with complete humbleness and complete respect for the listener. He cannot consider himself higher than them, otherwise that light will never reach their hearts. That is also why each is in need of a guide, as was shown by the Guide of guides himself, the Prophet , when he took Jibril as a guide for Revelation, and when he took a guide in traveling to Madina.
This is how Ibn `Arabi (q) in Fusus al-hikam explains the three acts of Khidr witnessed by Musa :
Moses was tested ’by many ordeals’ [20:41] the first of which was the murder of the Egyptian [28:14-15], an act which he committed by Divine impulsion and with the approbation of God deep inside him, without however, his perceiving it; nevertheless he felt no affliction in his soul for having killed the Egyptian, although he himself was not acquitted until he had received a Divine revelation on the subject. For all prophets are interiorly preserved from sin without their being conscious of it, even before they are warned by inspiration
It is for that reason that al-Khidr showed him the putting to death of the boy, an action for which Moses reproached him, without remembering his murder of the Egyptian, upon which al-Khidr said to him: ‘I have not done it of my own initiative,’ recalling thus to Moses the state in which he, the latter, found himself when he did not yet know that he was essentially preserved from all action contrary to the Divine Order.
He showed him also the perforation of the boat, apparently made to destroy the people, but which has, however, the hidden sense of saving them from the hand of a ‘violent man.’ He showed this to him as an analogy to the ark which hid Moses when he was thrown into the Nile; according to appearances, this act was equally to destroy him, but according to the hidden sense, it was to save him. Again his mother had done that for fear of the ‘violent man,’ in this case Pharaoh, so that he would not cruelly kill the child…
Moses arrived then at Madyan, there met the two girls and for them drew water from the well, without asking from them a salary. Then he ‘withdrew to the shade,’ that is to say to the Divine shadow, and said: ‘O my Lord, I am poor with regard to the blessings Thou bestowest on Me’; he attributed, then, to God alone the essence of the good that he did and qualified himself as poor (faqir) towards God. It was for that reason that al-Khidr reconstructed before him the crumbling wall without asking a salary for his work, for which Moses reprimanded him, until Khidr reminded him of his action of drawing water without asking for reward, and other things too, of which there is no mention in the Koran; so that the Messenger of God — may God bless him and give him Peace! — regretted that Moses did not keep quiet and did not remain with al-Khidr, so that God could tell him more of their actions.
Of Khidr’s sayings to Sahl at-Tustari (q) according to Ibn `Arabi:
Allah created the Light of Muhammad from His Light… This Light stayed before Allah for 100,000 years. Allah directed His Gaze upon it 70,000 times every day and night, adding to it a new light from His Light every time. Then, from that Light, He created all creations.
When the Prophet left this world and condolence came, they heard a voice from the corner of the house saying, “Peace, God’s mercy and blessings be upon you, members of the Family of the Prophet !” `Ali (r) then asked if they knew who this was, and he said it was Khidr . Bayhaqi transmitted it in Dala’il an-Nubuwwa.
Ziyarat in Kitab with a visit from Hazrat Dervisch Muhammad al-Samarqandi, Hodja Mahmud al-Amkanaki, Hazrat Bashir. Return to Samarkand. Overnight in Samarkand
On the way...
Maqam of Shaykh Darwish Muhammad
قMawlana Shaykh Muhammad Adil ق visiting the resting place of Shaykh Darwish Muhammad ق in Kitab, Uzbekistan
The shrine of Darvesh Muhammad (date of birth is unknown and Mevlana Darvesh Muhammad died in 1562). The shrine of Mevlana Darvesh Muhammad is located in the village of Khujaisparoz (or Khujaparvoz), 14 km far from east of the center of Kitab district of Kashkadarya region, and is also known as the Aksu shrine. In this shrine there are the graves of the great sahibkiran Amir Temur’s teacher Sheikh Shamsiddin Kulol (XIV century) and Mevlana Darvesh Muhammad. The healing Aksu River flows in front of the shrine. Till today, a mosque built in the 14th century and a mulberry tree planted at that time are preserved in this sacred place. The length of the mulberry tree can fit up to 9 people’s arms. In its time, the front of the shrine also contained khujras, after The World War II (1941- 1945) they were destroyed and the bricks were carried away, but the main foundations are still preserved.
Mawlana Shaykh Muhammad Adil (Q.S) making dhikr at the mosque of Khawaja Darwish Muhammad (Q.S)
Personality and life of Darvesh Muhammad (Mevlana Darvesh Muhammad) Darvesh Muhammad was originally from the village of Vakhshuvor in the Altynsay district of the Surkhandarya region, that is why he is also known as Darvesh Muhammad Vakhshuvori. Darvesh Muhammad was the nephew of Muhammad Zahid, who was a disciple of Muhammad Khoja Ahror Vali and his descendants are related to Hazrat Umar. He spent 15 years of his youth in zuhd (piety) and riyazat(difficulty). He was educated by his uncle Muhammad Zahid. After having a knowledge of religion, Darvish Muhammad became one of the greatest of the khalifa and taught the followers and disciples the sciences of the Qur’an and hadith, as well as other scientific rules. He has such works as “Maktubot”, “Risolai dar suluk”, “Risolai khush dar dam”. According to the narration of the sainthood of Darvish Muhammad, Bukhara khan invited to the meeting all the greats and pirs . Meals were served at the meeting. Darvish Muhammad did not eat any food, and when asked why, he said that these foods were not prepared halal. They asked the reason of why it was not halal, he said that there was najaz (dead animal) in the well which the water of the meal was taken. When they went to the well, they saw a dead animal at the bottom. Darvish Muhammad, known also as “Khojagan Sardaftari”, allowed his son Khojagi Muhammad Imkanagi to be the sheikh after him. In present day, this sacred place is visited by both local tourists and tourists from all countries around the world such: Indonesia, India, Turkey, Bangladesh, England, France and China.
He is the Ghawth (Arch-Intercessor) of the Famous Saints and the Blessing of the Scholars of Islam. He is the Dawn and the Light of both the East and the West. He is the Master of the Kingdom of Guidance. He grew up in the house of his uncle who taught him the best manners, educated him in spiritual and religious knowledge, and nursed him from the fount of morality and ethics. He quenched his thirst with the Heavenly Realities and Unseen Knowledge, until his heart became a House of Revelation, as Allah said in the Holy Hadith, “Neither my heaven nor my earth could contain Me, but the heart of my Believing Servant contained Me.”
He was known in his time as Darwish Wali. He grasped all kinds of understandings of the Religion and he was able to erase the mischief and the misguidance of many of the false teachers of his time. He revived languishing hearts and he mended broken hearts, until he became the blessing of his time and the Human Essence of Guidance. He had many followers throughout the country. His house and his mosque were filled with visitors asking and seeking his guidance.
One time after an association he had just held with him and other murids, Shaykh Muhammad az-Zahid told him to go up a certain hill at some distance and wait for him there. The Shaykh told him he would be coming later. Darwish Muhammad was so obedient to his Shaykh that he surrendered his will to him completely. His conduct was perfect. He went and waited for the Shaykh to come, without using his mind to ask: “how shall I go there, what shall I do when I get there, etc.” He moved immediately. He arrived and began to wait. The time for afternoon prayers came and the Shaykh did not show up. Then the sun set. His ego was telling him, “Your Shaykh isn’t coming; you have to go back. Maybe the Shaykh forgot.” His truthful belief, however, told him: “O Darwish Muhammad, believe in your Shaykh and believe that he is certainly coming, as he said. You have to wait.”
How was Darwish Muhammad’s heart to believe his ego when his heart was being lifted up to be with his Shaykh? He braced up and waited. Night came and it was very cold on the hill. He was freezing. He spent all night awake and his only source of warmth was his dhikr of “la ilaha illallah”. Dawn came and the Shaykh had still not shown up. He was hungry and started looking for something to eat. He found some fruit trees, ate, and kept waiting for the Shaykh. The day went, and then the next day. He was again in a big struggle with his ego, but he kept thinking: “If my Shaykh is a real Shaykh, he knows what he is doing.”
A week went and then a month. The Shaykh was not coming. The only distraction Darwish Muhammad had from waiting was dhikrullah, and his daily prayers were his only other activity. He kept on only until the power of his dhikr made the animals come and sit around him to make dhikr with him. He realized that this miraculous power had come to him from his Shaykh.
Winter came and the Shaykh didn’t come. It began to snow. It was extremely cold and there was no more food. He began to cut the bark of the trees and feed himself on the moisture inside, and from roots and whatever green leaves he could find. Deer came to him and he began to milk the ewes. This was another miracle which appeared to him. The ewe did not move when he milked her, and another came. He was being lifted up to higher and higher spiritual levels, and his teacher was sending him spiritual knowledge through these miracles and visions. Khidr ” He said, “What if something had happened to me?” Darwish Muhammad said, “O my Shaykh, if I had not stayed here and waited for you and obeyed, you would have never come to me by permission of the Prophet ” Darwish Muhammad had detected in his heart that his Shaykh was coming by the order of the Prophet .
The Shaykh laughed and said: “Come with me.” At that moment he poured to him the secret and the power of this Golden Chain of the Naqshbandi order that he had in his heart. He then ordered him to be the Shaykh of the murids. Darwish Muhammad remained in his Shaykh’s service until Shaykh Muhammad az-Zahid passed away.
Mawlana Shaykh Muhammad Adil (Q.S) making the ziyarah of Khawaja Muhammad al Amakanki (Q.S)
Shrine of Khojagi Muhammad Imkanagi (Mevlana Abdulboki Khojagi Imkanagi, 1512-1600) The shrine of Khojagi Muhammad Imkanagiy is located in the village of Imkanak, 12 km far from the east of the center of Kitab district of Kashkadarya region. There is a large complex built on the hill in the early XVII century and there are remains of the khanaqah and the walls of the complex, and in the eastern part of the building there is a dakhma. This complex and dakhma were built by his son and disciple Hoja Abdulqasim in 1601-1605. The foundation of the dakhma was rectangular and the surface was decorated with gray marble.
At the top of the dakhma there is a tombstone made of white carved marble. The shrine is also important because of its location in a beautiful place and is of great interest to visitors. A mosque was built on the territory of the shrine for Muslim tourists during the years of independence. In the southern part of the area there is also a large 16th century maple tree, which can easily accommodate 8 people inside.
Hodja Mahmud al-Amkanaki
Shaykh Muhammad Khwaja al-Amkanaki was born in Amkana, a village of Bukhara. His father and his uncle raised him. During his childhood, he was well guided, until he became like one beneath an exalted dome, protected from every shame. He never discovered any good characteristic except that he acquired it. He discarded even the smallest mistakes and errors. H never encountered a high station without encompassing it, nor a valuable secret without keeping it, nor a delicious spiritual taste without savoring it. He followed his father like the sun on a bright day and like the full moon on a dark night. He sat on the throne of succession. He tried his best to lift up the hearts of people. He wore the cloak of the spiritual poles. Every atom in this world, whether human or animal, plant or inanimate object, was supported by his spirituality. The light of his power enlightened the Way of this Order, so that his fame spread far and wide. People ran to him to receive his knowledge, to be guided by his light, and to be enlightened by his guidance. His door became the aim of every knower and the qiblah (focus of spiritual attention) of the hearts of the pious. He was dressed and decorated with the attributes of the Divine, attesting to his high position in the heavenly realm.Read more here
Mawlana Shaykh Muhammad Adil (Q.S) making hadra after the ziyarah of Khawaja Muhammad al Amakanki (Q.S)
the tomb of Hazrat Bashir in Kitab District of Kashkadarya region, the original name of Hazrat Bashir is Sultan Said Ahmad Ali. He was born in 1368 in the village of Kosatarosh of the Kitab District. Until the age of 4-5 , Hazrat Bashir would live under the wing of his parents,and then independently,would reach perfection in the chapter of Sharia, tariqat , enlightenment and truth. He Mawlana Shaykh Muhammad Adil (Q.S) making hadra after the ziyarah of Khawaja Muhammad al Amakanki (Q.S)Mawlana Shaykh Muhammad Adil (Q.S) making hadra after the ziyarah of Khawaja Muhammad al Amakanki (Q.S)followed the tariqat of Sheikh Bozrukwar Yassavi. The heritage and traditions left by him have been of great value in the Islamic world as well as their place. Rumor has it that Hazrati Bashir throws a stick made of Arch in his hand from the place where he lives, and the stick is pinned to a hill in the same place. Over time, the stick begins to bruise from the place where it was pinned. This juniper is also now living as a burrow. Hazrat Bashir passes away at the age of 96. His grave is on a hill of Spruce greenery, and now this place is called the tomb of Hazrat Bashir. Some sources say that after having placed Hazrati Bashir in the grave,the light fell from the sky after the evening prayer which light the blessed graves of him.
The power of Awliya’ led so many people to guidance. Not only that, but each of them made scholars by teaching the knowledge of Dunyā & Ākhirah. They sent their followers & Murids everywhere, so became means for spreading Islam. All this was for the pleasure of Allah
8. Khwaja Alauddin al-Attar
Khwaja Alauddin al-Attar (may God sanctify his innermost being), is the eighteenth Shaykh in the Naqshbandi Golden Chain and at the same time, the ninth Khwaja of the ‘Khwajagan’ – the Masters of Wisdom of Central Asia.
Born in Bukhara, his personal name was Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Bukhari, but he became known as Khwaja Alauddin Attar. He left everything that he had inherited from his father to his two brothers, and devoted himself to study in the Sufi and Islamic Schools in his home city. He consequently became a leading authority in both Islamic and Sufi knowledge.
He asked his Master, Khwaja Shah Naqshband, for his daughter’s hand in marriage. The answer came to Shah Naqshband after midnight, while he was sleeping in the village of Qasr al-Arifin. On awakening, he went to the School in Bukhara, where Khwaja Alauddin was studying and living. Shah Naqshband found everyone sleeping except Khwaja Alauddin, who was reading the Holy Quran by the light of a small oil lamp. Coming up behind him, he tapped him on the shoulder but Alauddin did not respond. He tapped him again but he still did not respond. Then through his spiritual vision, Khwaja Shah Naqshband perceived that Khwaja Alauddin was not present but was in the Divine Presence. He then called him spiritually and Khwaja Alauddin immediately looked up and said, “O my Shaykh”. Shah Naqshband said, “I’ve had a dream in which the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) accepted your proposal for my daughter. This is the reason that I have come to you so late at night – to inform you of the good news.” Khwaja Alauddin responded, “O my Shaykh, I have nothing to spend on your daughter nor myself, because I am poor, having given my inheritance to my brothers.” Shah Naqshband replied, “O my son, whatever God has written for you on the Day of Promises will accrue to you. So do not worry, God will provide.”
Like Joseph was close to the heart of his father, Jacob, Khwaja Alauddin was very dear and special to Shah Naqshband, who took full responsibility for Khwaja Alauddin, raising him from one level to another until he was ready to appear in the Divine Presence. Khwaja Alauddin became unique among the many followers of Shah Naqshband, with the Shaykh ordering him during his lifetime, to enlighten some of the Shaykh’s followers. Consequently, Khwaja Alauddin became the Shaykh of Khwaja Muhammad Parsa, who said he heard Khwaja Alauddin say, “I was given a power by my Shaykh, Shah Naqshabnd, such that if I were to focus on everyone in this universe, I would raise them to the state of perfection. “
Khwaja Alauddin was very dear and special to Shah Naqshband, just as Joseph had been dear to the heart of his father, Jacob.
Two weeks before his death, Khwaja Alauddin Attar advised those close to him, “I am going to leave you, to go to the other life.” He died in 1400 AD and was buried in Denau, in the Surkhandaya region of south-east Uzbekisatn, near the Afghan border.
He passed the secret of the Naqshbandi order onto his foremost Deputy, Khwaja Yaqub al-Charkhi. His other Deputies, that continued the Naqshbandi teaching were:- – Khwaja Nizamuddin Khamush, a man of numerous miracles. Shaykh Sa’d al-Din Kashghari was one of his deputies. – His noble son, Khwaja Hasan Attar, who was a prominent Naqshbandi Shaykh, having many Deputies. – Shaykh Sayyid Sharif al-Jurani, the author of the Books, ‘The Unity of Being’ and ‘Definitions’.
One of the famous holy places in Uzbekistan is found 40 km to the south-west from Samarkand, in the Aksay village territory. It is the Cave of Hazrat Daud (St. David), worshipped in three world’s religions. The cave is wrapped in a shroud of many legends, year in, year out, told over by the locals to pilgrims who come there to ask the saint for healing or accomplishment of their heart’s desire.
According to an Arab legend Lord sent the biblical King David to Asia to preach monotheism. The preaching of Hazrat Daud, as he was called by Muslims, kindled the anger of Zoroastrians, who lived there, causing them to pursue him. Daud took refuge in the mountains, and praying to God, was able to move apart the stones by hands and tucked in the mountain.
According to another popular legend David was seeking a secret place to rest before the battle with Goliath. Genii brought him to a mountainous area close to Samarkand, but ifrits found him and brought giant Goliath on their backs too. David applied to God with a prayer to hide him, for he was not yet ready for the battle with Goliath. He ran until he had inaccessible cliffs got in his way. Believing that Lord would protect him, David began to dig a hole in a boulder which suddenly became softer than wax in his hands. He went deep into the rock, leaving Goliath holding an empty bag, and basting the rock with his club in epicene fury.
The cave of Hazrat Daud is believed to fulfill any, even most incredible desire. To get to it you need to mount 1303 steps, plunging up to the mountain peak. There, at the top, you can pray at the ancient mosque. Then you need to go down 200 steps to the cave of Hazrat Daud. The cave, from 0.5 to 4-m wide, up to 15-m high and up to 30-m long, is a dark tunnel where you can see Daud’s handprints and footprints at its end. To make a wish you should touch them.
Not every pilgrim is able to climb up about 2,000 steps. The locals offer a donkey or horse to climb the mountain. Along the whole length of the stairs there are shopping stalls trading water, officinal mountain herbs, skins of wild animals and different souvenirs.
The Shohizinda Architectural Complex exhibits a large collection of mausoleums the 11th – 15th centuries, which are part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site
the Gur-Emir Mausoleum – a tomb of the Timurid dynasty, known as the Khodscha Doniyor Mausoleum than the prophet Daniel and the the mausoleum of Imam al-Maturidi
Gur-Emir Mausoleum, Samarkand
One of the most significant architectural ensembles of medieval East – the Gur Emir was built in the southwestern part of Samarkand at the beginning of the XV century. This majestic complex consisted of a khanaka, the madrasah of Muhammad Sultan – grandson of Amir Timur, and, later, tombs of Amir Timur himself and his descendants.
The madrasah, a small building with a typical yard composition was meant to teach the children Samarkand nobility. Opposite to the madrasah there located a khanaka with a central hall and cells – hudjras. The both buildings were erected by Mukhammad Sultan’s order to be become a center of Islamic education. But Muhammad sudden death in 1403 led to a change in an intended use of the complex.
After the death of Muhammad Sultan, Amir Timur was inconsolable: he ordered to put temporarily the remains of his beloved grandson in a madrasah’s corner room – darskhana, and immediately started the construction of the mausoleum which closed the ensemble from the south.
The complex courtyard was decorated with a single decorative wall with four minarets located at its corners, while from the north it was decorated with a magnificent entrance portal containing a name of the architecture – Muhammad ibn Mahmud Isfahani.
However, Tamerlane did not live to see the mausoleum finished, he died in winter 1405. The construction was completed by another Tamerlane grandson – Ulugbek. Although Amir Timur already prepared a mausoleum for himself in his native Shakhrisabz, it was Gur Emir that became his tomb and a burial place of his descendants. There rest his two sons – Shahrukh and Miranshah, beloved grandsons – Muhammad Sultan and Ulugbek as well as Timur’s spiritual mentor – Mir Said Baraka.
Today, the burial places in Gur Emir Mausoleum are marked with gravestones. The Timur’s gravestone, made of a single piece of jade, is located in the center of the tomb. The burials themselves are located below, in the mausoleum basement. The graves are located just in the same way as the gravestones in the hall upstairs. The Timurid tombs were opened only once in 1941, this event generated a famous legend.
The mausoleum is a fine example of medieval architectural craftsmanship. The contemporaries still admire the harmony of its proportions. The ribbed dome and vault walls are completely covered with a mosaic of light and dark blue glazed bricks, gilding and painting. The relief rosettes on the dome imitate a starry sky. The interior is enriched with bar tracery grids in the windows, marble and onyx panels covered with paintings, carving and inlaid with semiprecious stones.
Subsequently, Gur Emir was a prototype for famous samples of architecture of the Great Mughal: Humayun Mausoleum in Delhi and the Taj Mahal in Agra, built by Timur descendants, who ruled northern India.
Today Gur Emir Mausoleum and its entrance portal are renovated by the restorers, but the khanaka and madrasahs, unfortunately, are left only ruins.
Mausoleum of St. Daniel, Samarkand
There is hardly any place in the world is a where Muslim, Christian and Jew come to pray. But this Tomb of the Old Testament Prophet Daniel, also known as Daniiel, or Doniyar.
It is situated on the outskirts of the settlement Afrasiab that is in the north-east of Samarkand. On a high bluff of the hill there stretched a long 5-domed building of the mausoleum, and at the foot of the hill there is the river Siab. The sprawl of the building is directly connected with the tomb, whose length is equal to 18 meters.
Many legends and hypotheses are connected with this grave. Some argue that the remains were brought here by early Christians, others are inclined to think that they had been ordered to deliver to Samarkand by famous medieval ruler Amir Timur (Tamerlane).
There are also differences between what it is in the tomb: some sources say that the burial of St. Daniel’s arm, the other counter, and say that here they brought only a handful of earth from the grave of the saint. The third contradiction is associated with belonging of the remains, where featured two faces: the first – the prophet Daniel, the second Khoja Doniyar – associate of Kusama ibn ‘Abbas (Shahi-Zinda).
There are also legends about the size of the grave. According to one interpretation, the holy relics increase from year to year. Others argue that the tomb is made large, so no one can accurately find the location of the remains and steal them.
Be that as it may, this mausoleum, being away from other attractions in Samarkand, is attracting a huge number of pilgrims of many nationalities and religions. And you should not be a believer to feel calm and peacefulness of the place.
Mausoleum of Imam al-Moturidi, Samarkand
The tomb of Imam al-Moturidi is another sacred place in Samarkand. The grand Imam and famous philosopher and theologian fought for the purity of Islam. He was buried there in 944, in the cemetery Chokardiza where many other famous scientists of Islam world were buried as well. Once upon a time a military fortress was here, therefore the cemetery has such a name: “Chokar” means “army” “Disa” means a fortress.
In 1947 the cemetery was leveled to the ground. Ten years ago the grave was found again it for visiting it was opened only on the 17th of November 2000. In 2000 1130-year anniversary of Imam al-Moturidi was widely celebrated. The mausoleum was restored in Chokardiza, and the entire territory was landscaped.
the mausoleum by Imam al-Maturidi, who was primarily considered the founder of the Sunni Maturidiyyah school of the Theosophy (Kalam) and Islamic jurisprudence (Fiqh) is known.
Ali Nasafi Tomb, within the Shah-i-Zinda Complex (built 1360s-1380s)
The so-called “Tomb of Ali Nasafi” is located on the west side of the alley of tombs within the Shah-i-Zinda necropolis, roughly halfway along the path. It is one of a several dozen tombs built along the south side of a hill that formed the core of Afrasiyab, the city that preceded Samarkand prior to its destruction by the Mongols. The name “Shah-i-Zinda”, or “The Living King”, refers to the legend that Qutham ibn Abbas, a cousin of the Prophet Muhammad who perished here in the first siege of Samarkand by Islamic forces, is not in fact dead, but descended into a well and remains the king of an underground paradise. In honor of the saint, the site has attracted tomb building from the 11th through the 19th centuries, with many of its finest tombs built in the Timurid era (late 14th-early 16th century).
Despite its designation as the “Ali Nasafi tomb”, nothing is known of who was buried here and what relation (if any) they had to the royal family of Timur. The present name of the tomb is taken from an inscription at the base of the door jamb within the pishtaq, which attributes the tomb’s construction to a certain ostad (master artisan) Ali Nasafi, whose surname indicates the likely hometown of Karshi in what is now central Uzbekistan. Although not included in the tomb’s present name, another ostad named Ali Tuki-kub left his signature on the opposite side of the door jamb in the same position. In the absence of further information, it is reasonable to assume that the two masters were equal participants in the execution of the tomb, as they both used the same titles (ostad) and inscribed their names in similar locations on opposite sides of the entrance.
The iconography of the tomb’s richly decorated pishtaq and interior surfaces provides a wealth of calligraphic samples in Arabic, mostly written in square Kufic script. These mostly consist of verses from the Quran such as Sura 112 “The Unity”, Sura 114 “The Men”, and the entirety of verse 255 from Sura 2:
Allah – there is no deity except Him, the Ever-Living, the Sustainer of [all] existence. Neither drowsiness overtakes Him nor sleep. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. Who is it that can intercede with Him except by His permission? He knows what is [presently] before them and what will be after them, and they encompass not a thing of His knowledge except for what He wills. His Kursi [throne] extends over the heavens and the earth, and their preservation tires Him not. And He is the Most High, the Most Great.
As these verses are drawn directly from the Quran, they do not provide any useful information regarding the tomb’s occupant, other than that he/she was a Muslim. The only calligraphy that suggests more detail are the names of the twelve imams inscribed within several of the 8-sided star motifs on the front of the pishtaq. It may be an indication that the occupant had Shi’ite affiliations or was sympathetic to Shi’ite beliefs. Beyond that, nothing written on the tomb brings its occupant into closer focus. It remains possible that such identifying information once existed on the tomb but was located in one or more areas that did not survive the passage of time. The present “complete” appearance of the tomb is deceptive, as roughly 40% of the facade’s tile work are recent restorations, albeit of excellent quality.
The historians Soustiel and Porter suggest the monument was erected in two phases from the 1360s to the 1380s. The first phase involved the plan of the tomb which is similar to others from that era. Also, the specific use of buff bricks and turquoise key motifs is emblematic of the prevailing style of the 1360s. In contrast, the interior decoration and main facade are clearly of a more advanced nature and reflect techniques and motifs commonly used in the 1380s. For example, Lisa Golombek notes that “the technique of painting tiles with a wide-ranging palette, including low-fire pigments such as red and gold, enjoyed a brief period of popularity in the region” (Golombek, p. 145), and notes that Ali Nasafi tomb is a relevant example of this short-lived trend.
Ultimately, this suggests the occupant was a person of some stature if construction of the tomb was maintained over a period of 20 to 30 years. Alternatively, it remains possible that the original tomb of the 1360s was never completed (and its occupant interred elsewhere), and the two osted were retained in the 1380s to complete its decorative treatment for another occupant.
One significant unknown is the state of the outer dome in this chronology: as the dome collapsed long ago (fortunately, not damaging the inner dome with its splendid ceiling), it is impossible to say what sort of decoration was used and to what extent it had been completed when the two masters began their work.
Mawlana Shaykh Mohammed Adil q in het Shah-i-Zinda Complex in Samarkand, Uzbekistan
Legend about Uzbekistan
By the ancient legend, the Lord allotted lands of the created world to all nations. Being kind and friendly, Uzbek made the way for everyone in the crowd: “Please, pass. Markhamat.”
When, finally, it was his turn, the Lord said to him: “My son, you came too late. I have already finished the allotment of lands. Where were you before?” Uzbek bowed to the Heavenly Father and, laying his hand on his chest, said,” Oh, our Creator! You taught me to be always merciful and to love neighbors. And I, the servant of God, gave the way to everyone who wished to go forward and therefore I am the last who appeared before your eyes”.
Face of God brightened up and pure smile lit up his face. He said: “My son, Uzbek! You turned out a truly generous person with pure soul. And now I am going to give you land that I left for myself and which is like a paradise.”
So the Creator of Heaven and Earth gave Uzbek the land which was between two large rivers, flowing from the mountains. The name of this land is Uzbekistan.
Legend of Leopard: The Samarkand Symbol
“By a legend, when Samarkand was built, a palyang-leopard came down from the Zerafshan mountains. The leopard roamed about the streets, approved buildings and came back to the mountains. Since that time Samarkand residents were called leopards. And all Samarkand’s flags and arms had an image of the leopard.” This legend is told by Abu-Sand Abdu-Rakhman Ibn Muhammad Idris.
Indeed, in Samarkand there are a lot of monuments featuring images of leopard or lion as a symbol of the greatness and power of Samarkand people. The symbol of leopard can be found not only in the architecture, but also in the handicrafts and national currency.
The most famous images of leopards are made on the portal of the Sherdor Madrassah. “Sher” in Persian means “a lion”. They say that the symbol of the lion was brought by Iranians, but during the Arab and Turkic periods it was changed to the leopard. Since that time it represents the power and strength of Great Samarkand.
40 steps to Shakhi Zinda
When one passes under the entrance portal of Shakhi Zinda, he finds himself in the world of legends and mysteries. The complex of Shakhi Zinda starts with stairs consisting of 40 steps, which represent the path of repentance and prayer. These stairs are cloaked in many legends and myths, which are still alive in the hearts of people. Every visitor of Shakhi Zinda, whether believer or tourist, always starts counting stairs both on the way up and way down. The legend says when the number of stairs matches on the both ways, the person can be considered free from sin. Therefore today you can see here many visitors, diligently counting stairs. But not many people know that this spiritual tradition has deeper roots.
In the Middle Ages the Mashad of Kussama was a place of pilgrimage, a kind of Central-Asian Mecca. During this period, the stairs appeared in the mausoleum. It was a symbol of the great transformation of the human spirit. Pilgrims had to recite verses from the Koran and think about God at each step of the stairs. Someone made the same way in his heart, sitting under the roof of aivan at the foot of the stairs. And only on the 40th day, the believer climbed the stairs, leading to the top mosque and the main mausoleum of the complex.
All this happened at the daytime. At night, the pilgrims were replaced by Muslim mystics, the Sufis, who sang their songs concentrated on the mentioning of Allah. Depending on the theological school, which they followed, these rites were silent or loud.
There is a legend about the 40-day prayer service held by the spiritual leader of the Naqshbandi Sufi Order Bahauddin Naqshbandi. Every day, praying for God and rising up step by step, he soon reached the upper step. At the same moment he saw a rider on a white horse, rapidly approaching him. For a moment the Sufi thought that he would be trampled to death by the horse but the rider, peering at the face of the master, suddenly stopped his horse and asked the Great Sufi about something.
Amazed pilgrims, who watched the incident from downstairs, saw that after ending the conversation the unknown rider turned his horse around and disappeared as suddenly as appeared. According to the legend, the rider was Kussama Ibn Abbas himself, who decided to test the great master at the peak of his Travel.
After that, the mausoleum had attracted much more pilgrims who performed their prayers in the night from Thursday to Friday. They chanted prayers that echoed through the ancient domes and arches.
Legends of Shahi-Zinda
History of Shakhi Zinda has always raised a lot of questions. This monument is cloaked in mysteries and legends, most of which belong to the name of the complex: “The Living King”. All this is related with the name of the Prophet Muhammad’s uncle, Kussama ibn Abbas. There are several legends about his death.
The most popular legend states that during the battle with the heathens Kussama Ibn Abbas was mortally wounded. Some legends say he was beheaded, others say it was a wound by an arrow. But they all agree on the fact that during the battle the spirit of the Saint Hazrat Hyzr came down to the mortally wounded Kussama ibn Abbas and helped him escape from the battlefield. Hazrat Hyzr placed Kussama ibn Abbas in the well of Shaaban, where he, having drunk the water of life, recovered and became immortal. Hence the name Shakhi Zinda: “The Living King”.
After seven centuries, Tamerlane decided to visit the holy places in Samarkand, returning from a trip. When he came to the well, in which Shakhi Zinda had disappeared, he was overcome by doubts. He turned to his suite and said: “I’ve read in history books, and all people know that Shahi-Zinda has hidden in the well, when he was pursued by insurgent Samarkand people, and that he is alive and resides in the well. I want to know whether it is true or Shakhi Zinda has already dead.”
And his suite told him: -Sir, no one but God can know this secret. It is impossible to say whether Shakhi Zinda is alive or dead at the present time, not seeing him with your own eyes.
Then a nobleman said: – Great sir, I’ve read in a book that Shakhi Zinda will be in prayer in this well until a new messiah comes back to the Earth. Then Shakhi Zinda would come out of the well and appear to the people. But Timur did not believe to his suite. He called volunteers and promised a reward to those who would go down into the well and check whether the Living King resided in the well. He promised vast wealth those who would go down into the well, but no one wanted to risk his life, as the legends talked about a fire-breathing dragon that guarded the entrance to the well. Only one person whose name was Hida offered to go down. Hida was a brave soldier and had a tremendous force. He was tempted by the great wealth and honors, appeared before the emperor and said that he would come down into the well.
Hida tied a rope around his waist and began to descend into the well. At first he saw nothing at the bottom, but Hida was a clever soldier and had seen a lot in his life. He sat down and closed his eyes and then suddenly opened them and saw the light in the well. In the depths of the well he saw the cave and without hesitation went in. He saw an extraordinary picture: a palace faced with precious stones. The palace had sufas on each four sides and its facade looked like it was plastered with molten gold. On each side of the palace there were thrones in each sufa, adorned with precious stones. Hida was fascinated with incomparable beauty of the palace.
He had gone all over many countries, had seen a lot of different rarities, had heard many wonders, but nothing like this palace he had not even dreamed of. However, much as he went around and looked everywhere, nobody came and there was no sign of a man. Hida entered the palace, but it was also empty. Hida went through the palace, and, finally, opening a door, entered into a huge beautiful garden. It was the Garden of Eden. Hida decided to try the fruit on the trees, but suddenly a terrible voice stopped him and Hida ran like a deer away. He found himself in the meadow and saw three old men. They were surrounded by a crowd of people in white and green robes. Hida asked a man, standing next to him: Taksyr (Mister), who is this great man, shedding the light around him and those two noble old men, who sit with him?
The man replied: You should know, the servant of God, that the man, sitting in the center is Shakhi Zinda Kussam ibn Abbas with the Prophet Hyzr on the right and the Prophet Ilias on the left. People, whom you see here, are the souls of future people and the souls of dead sinless people. The first people are in white clothes, others in green. All of them come here every day to worship and serve the Hazrat (holy) Shakhi Zinda, and then fly away on those horses that you see to the right and left, to the east and west, around the world.
At that moment Shakhi Zinda noticed Hida. Hida frightened and fell to the ground. Shakhi Zinda said with anger in his voice: “Servant of God, you made a daring attempt of going down into the well and appearing before the souls of sinless people. Aren’t you afraid to anger me with your visit? Don’t you know that on my order they can make you a member of the permanent world, bring in a primitive, pre-Earth form? If I do this, I will get rid of other impudent people who may also wish to descend into the well and to visit the kingdom of pure souls to satisfy their curiosity.”
Hida began justifying himself in fear: “Oh Hazrat, do not punish me. I descended into the well not of my free will. A great ruler Amir Temur came to the world. He has already won half of the world and wants to take over all the Earth. He sent me here by force. How could I disobey him?”
But Shakhi Zinda replied that Timur did not force him to descend into the well and that Hida came here only because of his own greed. And he added that he would let Hida go, but he had to keep mum about what he had seen, otherwise he would become blind, and all his descendants would also be blind. Timur would also pay for his impudence. He would never conquer China.
When Hida came back to Timur, he asked Hida about Shakhi Zinda. Hida fell to his knees and asked him not to demand the answer, otherwise he and his descendants would go blind. Temur promised to reward Hida and his descendants any lands and vast riches for life. Then Hida said Temur about what he saw, following which two tears rolled out of his eyes and he became blind. And all his descendants were born blind. So the first part of the prophecy came true. About Timur: it is known from history that during the trip to China, the great commander died in Otrar, and did not win that state. The second part of the prophecy of Shakhi Zinda came true too…
Mawlana Shaykh Muhammad Adil ق visiting the resting place of Shaykh Ubaydullah al-Ahrar
Nassiruddin Ubaidullah Ahrar (1404-1490 AD) (in Persian: ناصرالدین عبیدالله احرار) more popularly known as Khwaja Ahrar (in Persian: خواجه احرار) was a HanafiMaturidi member of the Golden Chain of the Naqshbandi Sufi spiritual order of Central Asia. He was born in Samarkand, a Persian city in Central Asia, to a religious and devout muslim family. He was born to Khwaja Mehmood Shashi bin Khwaja Shihabuddin. His forefathers had migrated from Baghdad and his lineage connected to Abu Bakr Siddique from his paternal side and Umar Farooq from the maternal side. Khwaja Ahrar was deeply involved in the social, political and economics activities of Transaxonia. He was a born into a relatively poor yet highly spiritual family and at the age of maturity he was probably the richest person in the kingdom. He was a close associate of all the leading dervishes of the time. Maulana Abdur Rahman Jami was a disciple of his. He learned and practiced the secrets of spirituality under his father and later under Khwaja Yaqub Charkhi. Read more here
Khwaja Ahrar took his spiritual bayah (spiritual oath) from Yaqub al-Charkh. He had many disciple but the most famous was the famous sufi poet Mawlana Abdur Rahman Jami. Maulana Jami wrote a book dedicated to Ahrar which is called Tuhfa tul Ahrar and Khwaja Ahrar is also mention in Jami’s most famous work Yusuf and Zulekha. Khwaja Ahrar is also known to have negotiated peace many times. His spiritual disciples are recorded to have shown extremely high etiquettes and morals in his presence.
“Everyone enters through a different door; I entered this Spiritual Order through the door of service.”
“Love and follow Lovers. Then you will be like them and their love will reflect on you.”
“Sufism requires you to carry everyone’s burdens and not to put yours on anyone.”
Khawaja Ubaydullah Ahrar (Q.S)
Dastoor, yaa RijaalAllah! Don’t do anything without dastoor, permission. Ask for dastoor. Dastoor is the grant of those who possess spiritual power, it is Allah Almighty’s grant to them through our Prophet ﷺ. When we say “dastoor,” there is noor that we will receive from him.