- Imiya-yi Sa’ādat : The Alchemy of Happiness
During the time before it was written the Muslim world was considered to be in a state of political as well as intellectual unrest. Al-Ghazālī, noted that there were constant disputes about the role of philosophy and scholastic theology, and that Sufis became chastised for their neglect of the ritual obligations of Islam. Upon its release, the Kimiya-yi sa’ādat allowed al-Ghazali to considerably cut the tensions between the scholars and mystics. Kimiya-yi sa’ādat emphasized importance of observing the ritual requirements of Islam, the actions that would lead to salvation, and avoidance of sin. The factor that set the Kimiya-yi sa’ādat apart from other theological works at the time was its mystical emphasis on self-discipline and asceticism.
The Kimiya-yi Sa’ādat and its subsequent translations begin with citing some councils of the Prophet. Overall, the Kimiya-yi sa’ādat has four principle parts of ten chapters each:
- Ebādāt (religious duties)
- Monjīāt (salvation)
- Mu’amalat (human relations aspect of Islam)
- Mohlekāt (damnation)
Sa’āda (happiness) is a central concept in Islamic philosophy used to describe the highest aim of human striving. Sa’āda is considered to be part of the “ultimate happiness”, namely that of the hereafter. Only when a human being has liberated his/her soul completely from its corporal existence, and arrives at what is called “active intellect”. Al-Ghazali believed in practical-ethical perfection and that by exercising his God-given capacity for reason man must be drawn to the spiritual alchemy that transforms the soul from worldliness to complete devotion to God. This alone, he believed, could produce ultimate happiness. Ghazālī’s teachings were to help man to live a life in accordance with the sacred law, and by doing so gain a deeper understanding of its meaning on the day of Judgement.
Kimiya or Kimiā (Alchemy) is an applied and mystical science that has been studied for centuries. In its essence, Kimiā represents a complete conception of the universe and relations between earthly beings and the cosmos. Religious philosophers emphasized its importance as a religious discipline. Due to its spiritual dimensions Kimiā is considered the noblest of all occult sciences (i.e. astrology and various kinds of magic). Ghazali was himself a believer that everything on Earth is a manifestation of God’s spirit, thus everything belongs to kimiā.
There are definite parallels between Ihya’e Ulum-ed’Deen and Kimiya-yi sa’ādat, however the four introductory chapters of the Kimiya-yi sa’ādat contain relevant theological discussions that set the two apart. The Kimiya-yi sa’ādat is noticeably shorter than the Ihya’e Ulum-ed’Deen, however in the original Persian introduction of the Kimiya-yi sa’ādat, Ghazālī explicitly states he wrote Kimiya-yi sa’ādat to mirror the essence of Ihya’e Ulum-ed’Deen and a few of his other theological writings; he wrote it in Persian so that it could reach a broader, popular audience in his homeland
″God has sent on Earth a hundred and twenty-four thousand prophets to teach men the prescription of this alchemy, and how to purify their hearts from baser qualities in the crucible of abstinence. This alchemy may be briefly described as turning away from the world, and its constituents are four: Knowledge of Self, Knowledge of God, Knowledge of this world as it really is, Knowledge of the next world as it really is.″