Sep 21 Bukhara – Gishduwan – Bukhara
Bukhara is the birthplace of the seven great Sufis of the Naqshbandīya order.
The great representatives of Sufism lived here, led the religious and social life that led to education and prosperity of fertile Bukhara, for teaching spirituality and for increasing the emotional spirit contributed. Today you drive to Gishduwan (~ 50 km) and visit the 4 Maqams of the 7 Great Sufi Saints of Bukhara: Khaji Abdul Khaliq al-Ghujdawani, a spiritual mentor who leads the way of the Sohbet Sheiklh Effendià Khaji Ārif Riwgarī à Khaji leveled the Naqschbandīya teachings Mahmoud al-Anjir al-Faghnawi, the great spiritual Sufi master à Khaji Muhammad Baba Sammasi. Khaji Sammasi made an invaluable contribution to the development of Sufism, said the birth of a great person, the Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari. Return to Bukhara. Overnight in Bukhara
Bukhara is one of the most ancient cities of Uzbekistan, situated on a sacred hill, the place where sacrifices were made by fire-worshippers in springtime. This city was mentioned in a holy book “Avesto”. Bukhara city is supposed to be founded in the 13th cent. B.C. during the reign of Siyavushids who came to power 980 years before Alexander the Great. The name of Bukhara originates from the word “vihara” which means “monastery” in Sanskrit. The city was once a large commercial center on the Great Silk Road
Bukhara with more than 140 architectural monuments is a “town museum” dating back to the Middle Ages. 2,300 years later, ensembles like Poi-Kalyan, Ismail Samani Mausoleum, Ark, Lyabi-Khauz are attracting a lot of attention. The city consists of narrow streets, green parks and gardens, historical and architectural monuments belong to the different epochs, but locate very close to eahttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mHI3Vx__6NQch other.
Khaji Abdul Khali al-Ghujdawani
Abdul Khaliq al-Ghujdawani
He was known as the Shaikh of Miracles, One Who Shone Like the Sun, and he was the Master of the high stations of spirituality of his time. He was a Perfect Knower (carif kamil) in sufism and accomplished in asceticism. He is considered the Fountainhead of this Honorable Sufi Order and the Wellspring of the Khwajagan (Masters of Central Asia).
His father was Shaikh ‘Abdul Jamil, one of the most famous scholars in Byzantine times in both external and internal knowledge. His mother was a princess, the daughter of the king of Seljuk Anatolia.
Abdul Khaliq was born in Ghujdawan, a town near Bukhara in present-day Uzbekistan. There he lived and passed his life and was buried. He was a descendant of Imam Malik (r). In his childhood he studied the Qur’an and its tafsir (exegesis), ‘ilm al-Hadith (the study of Prophetic Traditions), the sciences of the Arabic language, and Jurisprudence with Shaikh Sadruddin. After mastering Sharica (the legal sciences) he moved on to jihad an-nafs (spiritual struggle), until he reached a high station of purity. He then moved to Damascus, where he established a school from which many students graduated. Each became a master of fiqh and hadith as well as spirituality, both in the regions of Central Asia as well as in the Middle East.
The ‘Uwaysi’ Transmission of Spiritual Knowledge
Sayyidina Shah Bahaudin Naqshband al-Uwaysi al-Bukhari received the silent dhikr from the spiritual presence (ruhaniyya) of Khwaja Abdul Khaliq Ghujdawani. He did not meet with him physically because there were five shaykhs between them in the Golden Chain. Similarly Sayyidina Abul Hasan al-Kharaqani took spiritual guidance and initiation in the Naqshbandi Order from the spiritual presence of Bayazid Bistami.
In this form of spiritual transmission, the spirits meet in the world called calam al-arwah (the world of spirits) which is beyond calam al-ajsam (the material plane). Whoever takes knowledge through spirituality from a deceased Master in the Naqshbandi Way, is called both Uwaisi and Naqshbandi. That spiritual connection is as powerful and effective as the physical connection.
The sign of the Favor of Allah Almighty and Exalted on his servant is to authorize one of His saints to uplift that servant to the Divine Presence. That is why many saints who came in previous times were guides for those who came after through this spiritual (Uwaysi) connection. It is known that many saints have been under the guidance and training of prophets and other saints that lifted them up.
As we mentioned, Sayyidina cAbdul Khaliq al-Ghujdwani was raised up by Sayyidina al-Khidr (s), Sayyidina Uways al-Qarani, and the spiritual Presences of Sayyidina cAli and Sayyidina Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. Then Sayyidina cAbdul Khaliq raised Shah Naqshband, who also received guidance from Sayyidina Uways al-Qarani, Sayyidina cAli, Sayyidina Abu Bakr, and the Prophet (s). Sayyidina Jacfar as-Sadiq raised up Sayyidina Bayazid al-Bistami. Sayyidina Bayazid al-Bistami raised up Sayyidina Abul-Hasan al-Kharaqani. Sayyidina cUbaidullah al-Ahrar was raised up by the spiritual connection to Sayyidina cIsa (s) and to Shah Naqshband. It is known that Sayyidina Ahmad al-Faruqi, in addition to the spiritual power he was receiving from Shah Naqshband, was also receiving spiritual support and power from Sayyidina cAli (r). Sayyidina Shaykh Sharafuddin ad-Daghestani was raised through spirituality by Sayyidina Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (r) and by Sayiddina Muhammad (s). Sayyidina Shaykh Abdullah Daghestani was under the spiritual guidance of Sayyidina Uwais al-Qarani (r), of Sayyidina cAbdul Khaliq al-Ghujdawani, and of Sayyidina Shah Naqshband and Sayyidina cAli. Shaykh Nazim received, in addition to the guidance received by Shaykh Abdullah and Shaykh Sharafuddin, additional guidance from Sayyidina Jalaluddin Rumi and Sayyidina cAbdul-qadir al-Gilani, who were his grandfathers on his father’s and his mother’s side.
These are the shaykhs of the Naqshbandi Order mentioned by Shaykh cAbdullah ad-Daghestani, who have, in addition to their physical connection, received the Uwaisi connection. They are known as the Shaykhs of the Two Wings (Dhul Janahain), meaning that both the physical lineage and the spiritual lineage are combined in them. These saints are only nine in number. Each one represents one of the nine spiritual points on the chest of the human being. Through these points these saints can reach their followers at any time. Because they have the authority of these nine points, they consider all of humankind to be their followers, whether they are aware of their spiritual connection to them or not. Through these points, which are of ‘Uwaysi’ nature, they can reach and affect any human being, intercede for them, and inspire their hearts in order to direct them to the Divine Love, although they have never met physically.
The author of the book al-Hada’iq al-Wardiyya tells us how he reached his high station within the Golden Chain: “He met Khidr (as) and accompanied him. He took from him heavenly knowledge and added it to the spiritual knowledge he had obtained from his shaikh, Yusuf al-Hamadani.
“One day when he was reading the Qur’an in the presence of Shaikh Sadruddin, he came upon the following ayat: “Call unto your Sustainer humbly, and in the secrecy of your hearts. Verily, He loves not those who transgress the bounds of what is right” [7:55]. This ayat prompted him to inquire of Shaikh Sadruddin about the reality of silent Dhikr and its method. Abdul Khaliq put his question thus: “In loud dhikr you have to use your tongue and people might listen to you and see you, whereas in the silent dhikr of the heart Shaytan might listen to you and hear you, since the Prophet said in his holy hadith: ‘Satan moves freely in the veins and arteries of the Sons of Adam.’ What, then, O my Shaikh Sadruddin, is the reality of ‘Call in the secrecy of your hearts?’ His shaikh replied, ‘O my son, this is a hidden, heavenly knowledge, and I wish that Allah Exalted and Almighty send you one of his saints to inspire on your tongue and in your heart the reality of secret dhikr.’ Read more here
Sheiklh Effendià Khaji Ārif Riwgarī à Khaji
He was a Knower whose Inner Truth appeared to him in all its brightness and light. He was a Sun of Knowledge who illuminated the dark sky of his Age. He was called the Light in the Garden of Reality and the Light in the Garden of the Prophet .
Arif (q) was born in the village of Riwakar six miles from Bukhara and one mile from Ghujdawan. He stood at the door of his Shaikh, Abdul Khaliq, and served him until the Shaikh gave him permission for irshad (giving guidance). He took the Secret of the Order from his Shaikh who witnessed his attainment to the state of perfection. He filled the countries around Bukhara with the scent of his blessings. He opened the minds and the hearts of the people of his time to the secrets of his knowledge.
His students recorded many of his sayings. The following are some of them:
Trust in God until He becomes your Teacher. Make the Remembrance of Death your partner.
Too much hope in the future veils you from the good found in Allah’s Way.
Whoever says ten times in a day, ‘Oh Allah Guide the Nation of Muhammad. Oh Allah Bless the Nation of Muhammad. Oh Allah remove all afflictions from the Nation of Muhammad,’ will be written among the group of saints known as the Abdal.
Whoever asks for Paradise without any good deeds it will be written for him as the Sin of Sins. Whoever awaits intercession without a cause, has a form of pride.
It is surprising to see so many Righteous (saliheen), and yet so few Truthful believers (sadiqeen).
To achieve healing from any affliction keep your affliction secret from people because they can be of no benefit to you. They can neither help you nor can they keep it from reaching you.
There are three kinds of hearts: the heart like a mountain, which nothing can move; the heart like a palm-tree, its roots firm but its branches in motion; and the heart like a feather, which the wind blows from right to left.
Who hopes to protect his religion, must avoid the company of people.
O Allah, whenever you want to punish me, do it, but don’t keep me away from Your Presence
Khwaja Mahmoud al-Anjir al-Faghnawi
He was a Master from whose heart the Water of Knowledge and Wisdom gushed forth. His heart was polished by the Divine Effulgence, making him one of the best of the Chosen Ones, purified from all darkness and misery, and translucent as crystal.
He was born in the village of Anjir Faghna, three miles from Bukhara. In his youth he used to work in construction. He devoted his life to the guidance of people to Allah’s Presence. He was the first in the line of the Masters of Wisdom (Khwajagan) to introduce the method of loud dhikr in accordance with the needs of the time and as required by the conditions of the seekers. When he was asked why he used the loud dhikr, he replied, “To awaken the sleeper.”
The Controversy on Loud Dhikr
One day Khwaja Mahmoud attended a scholarly gathering and Shaikh Shams al-Halwani said to the Shaikh Hafiz ad-Din, an authority in external knowledge, to ask Shaikh Mahmad Faghnawi why he was doing loud dhikr. Shaikh Mahmoud Faghnawi said, “it is the best dhikr to awaken an outsider from his state of slumber and to attract the attention of the heedless so that he direct himself towards Allah following the shaikh who is making dhikr, straighten himself on the Way, and make his repentance to Allah a pure one, which is the key to all good and happiness. If your intention is correct you will find the authority to use the loud dhikr.”
Shaikh Hafiz ad-Din asked him to clarify to him just who is permitted and allowed to practice the loud dhikr, in order to justify the practice to those who opposed it. He said “the loud dhikr is for anyone who wishes to reach the state of purifying his tongue from lying and backbiting, and free his private actions from committing what is forbidden, and clean his heart from pride and the love of fame.”
One day the Shaikh Ali Ramitani (q), said that a man saw Khidr and asked him, “Tell me where I can find someone that is keeping the sharica of the Prophet and the Straight Path, in order that I may follow him.” He said, “that one whom you are seeking is Shaikh Mahmad al-Anjir al-Faghnawi.”
It is said that Shaikh Mahmoud walked on the footsteps of the Prophet Muhammad in the station of Knowledge of God (macrifa) and he was also on the footsteps of Sayiddina Musa in the station of Kalimullah, the station of One who Speaks with Allah.
Shaikh Mahmoud radiated his knowledge from his masjid, which he built in the village of Wabiqni, close to Bukhara. He passed away in the village of Qilit, near Bukhara, on the 17th of Rabi’ul Awwal, in the year 717 H. He passed the secret of the Naqshbandi Sufi Order to his khalif, Ali ar-Ramitani (q)
Khaji Muhammad Baba Sammasi
Sheikh Ali Ramitani (Urdu عزیزان شیخ علی الرامتانی ) was born in the Ramitan area around Bukhara Uzbekistan. Due to his specialty in weaving cloth, Sheikh Ali Ramitani is often called Sheikh Nessac (weaver). After studying religious science, Sheikh Ali Ramitani conferred on Mahmood Anjir-Faghnawi When Sheikh Mahmud Injir Faghnawi was about to die, he handed over his ordination (tabligh) to Sheikh Ali Ramatini q.s followed by the observance of the other disciples.
He was a Noble Flag of Islam and a great scholar who opened the locks to the treasures of the heart and explained secrets from the Unseen. He received, from the Kingdom of Knowers, Bounties and Prizes and Honors. He guided the needy to the station of Spiritual Knowledge. His name flew high in the skies of Guidance, and there are no words to express his knowledge nor his state. To us he may be described, like the Mother of Books (the Holy Qur’an), as “one written in an elevated state.”
He was born in the village of Ramitan, two miles from Bukhara. He lived there, and was avid in learning the knowledge of the Divine Law (sharica), until he achieved fame in the Sciences of Traditions (Hadith), Qur’an, Jurisprudenct (Fiqh), and the Exemplary Path of the Prophet (Sunnah). He was a reference (marjac) for anyone asking for legal decisions (fatawa).
Then he contacted Shaikh Mahmad al-Anjir al-Faghnawi for spiritual guidance. In the Shaikh’s presence he was lifted up to the high stations of the Manifestation of Divine Love and the Divine Presence. He became known and famous under the name Azizan, a word in Persian used for one of elevated station. Following are some of his many sayings:
Do and do not count. Confess your shortcomings and continue work.
Attain to the presence of the Divine, especially when you are eating and when you are talking.
Allah Almighty and Exalted said in His Holy Qur’an, “O Believers, repent to Allah with a pure repentance.” This verse brings us good tidings. Since Allah asks for repentance (tawba), it means He will accept it, because if He were not going to accept your repentance, He would not tell you to make tawba
The Prophet said, ‘Allah looks at the heart of the Believer every night and day 360 times.’ This means that the heart has 360 entrances. And every organ has 360 roots, all of them connected to the heart. So if the heart, under the influence of Dhikrullah, is led to the station of Allah’s Gaze, this will lead all organs of the body to the Gaze of Allah. As a result, every organ will be obedient to Allah and from the light of that obedience every organ will be connected to the Divine Outpouring. This is what draws the Gaze of Mercy from Allah to the heart of the Rememberer.
More Controversy on Loud Dhikr
Mawlana Sayfuddin Fidda, a great scholar in his time, asked him, “Why do you raise your voice in Dhikr?” Sheikh Ali (q) said:
O my brother, Muslim scholars throughout the centuries, from the time of the Tabicin (the generation following the Companions) up until today, have permitted the loud dhikr in the last moments of life. At this time those near the dying encourage him to repeat the testimony of faith. The Prophet said, laqqina mawtakum shahadatan LA ILAHA ILLALLAH (“make your dying ones say: There is no god but Allah”). In the Science of Sufism, the scholars have emphasized that each moment may be your last. This leads to the conclusion that you may say LA ILAHA ILLALLAH in a loud voice at every moment of your life.
He was asked by Shaikh Mawlana Badruddin al-Midani, who was a great scholar in his time, “Allah has ordered us in the Qur’an to do excessive dhikr by His saying, “Remember Allah excessively” [33:41]. Is that dhikr to be by the tongue or by the heart?” Shaikh cAli Ramitani (q) answered:
For the beginner it is best that it be by the tongue, and for the adept it is best that it be by the heart.” He continued, “This is because for the beginner to remember Allah he must apply a great deal of effort. Since his heart is distracted and unstable and his efforts are scattered, it is better for him to do it with the tongue. But the adept has already polished his heart and is easily affected by dhikr. All of his organs become Rememberers so that the whole body of the adept, both externally and internally, remembers Allah in every moment. The equivalence of this is that one day’s dhikr of the adept is equal to one year’s dhikr of a beginner.
The duty of a guide is first to know the capability of the seeker. Then he will put on his tongue the most perfect method of dhikr to raise him to the highest station.
If there had been on earth one of the followers of Abdul Khaliq al-Ghujdawani at the time of Hallaj, Hallaj would never have been crucified.” This means that there would have been someone capable of defending him from the accusations of the ignorant.
Shaikh Fakhruddin an-Nuri, another famous scholar in his time, asked him, “Allah mentioned in the Holy Qur’an that on the Day of Promises he asked, Alastu bi Rabbikum, qala bala [7:172] (“Am I not your Lord? — They said: Yes!”), whereas on the Judgement Day He will ask, liman al-mulk ul-yawm [40:16] (‘to whom belongs the Kingdom on this day?’) and no one will answer. Why is it that they answered the question, ‘Am I not your Lord’ whereas on the Judgement Day they will not answer?” In His answer, Sheikh Ali Ramitani (q) demonstrated the incredible depth of understanding of Qur’an and Holy Hadith possessed by the Naqshbandi Masters. He said:
When the first question, ‘Am I not your Lord?’ was put to humankind, it was the day Allah had placed the obligations of the Sacred Law on all human beings. To reply when asked a question is an obligation under the Law. That is why they answered the question. However on the Judgement Day, all obligations have come to an end, and at that time, awareness of the Truth and the spiritual world begins. In spirituality there is no utterance better than silence, because spirituality is a flow from and to the heart unrelated to the tongue. That is why to the second question there is no need to give an answer. Allah Himself answers His own question, ‘To whom belongs the Kingdom this Day?’ by saying, lillah il-Wahid il-Qahhar, ‘It belongs to Allah, the Unique, the Irresistible’.
Upon receiving a heavenly order he moved from Bukhara to Khwarazm. When he reached Khwarazm, he didn’t enter the city, but stayed at its gate and sent his messenger to the king to tell him,
A poor weaver has come to enter your kingdom and to stay in it. Do you give permission or not? If you give permission he will enter. If not he will go back.
He asked the messenger to obtain a written letter, signed by the king, granting his permission. When he received that letter the Shaykh moved inside the city and began to spread the Naqshbandi Sufi Way. Every day he went to the town center, speaking with the people, asking them to come to his association and paying their wages for that day. He made the entire city his followers, pious worshippers and dedicated keepers of remembrance. He became very famous in the city. People used to visit him from all around. His good reputation made the king and his ministers afraid of his influence on the people. They tried to remove him from the city. Having foreseen this event, he sent the letter back to the king. At that the king came to the shaikh and apologized, asking for his forgiveness. He became one of his foremost murids.
Shaykh Ali died on Monday, 18th of Dhul Qa’idah in the year 715 H / 1315 CE or 721 H/1321 CE, at the age of 130 years.
He had two sons who were very famous in following the footsteps of their father. However, he did not pass the secret on to them. Instead he passed it to Shaikh Muhammad Baba as-Samasi (q).